Vaccinations : Vaccines~Sannendoah.com

Discussion in 'Health & Wellness' started by Sondra, Oct 25, 2007.

  1. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    VACCINES:

    Immunization requires an effective vaccine and a responsive animal. Animals should be at optimal health when they are vaccinated.Poor nutrition and parasite infection can suppress the immune response, thus making the vaccine less effective.
    Proper handling of livestock vaccines
    Store vaccines properly
    Vaccination site lumps & bumps
    Causes of Vaccination-Immunization Failures in Livestock
    2001- The AVMA on principles of vaccination
    Vaccine: A product made of disease causing organisms or by products of disease causing organisms which is designed to produce immunity in the host animal.
    Antibody: A protein produce by the animal's body in response to contact with disease causing organisms or a vaccination product. The protein provides very specific protection against infections caused by specific organisms only.
    Active immunity: Immunity provided by exposure to disease or vaccination.
    Passive immunity: Immunity provided from an outside source. The most common source is colostrum injested within the frist 24 hours after birth.Another is the passive immunity of serum antibody products like colostridium perfringens C&D antitoxin. Passive immunity is short lived (10-14 days) but interferes with the production of active immunity.
    Adjuvant: A chemical added to a killed vaccine to improve the amount of immunity produced.

    Vaccines are biological products and they will slowly lose their potency, even when stored under ideal conditions. The manufacturer has determined the expiry date for each batch of vaccine and if stored correctly it will retain its full potency up to the date shown. Each vaccine has specific storage conditions. The majority of vaccines are best stored in the refrigerator where they are kept cold but not subject to freezing and thawing. Biologicals freeze at a few degrees below water and may become useless if frozen. Freezing may reduce the potency of some vaccines and may cause local reactions at the injection site. Generally, 35-40° F is a safe temperature range.

    Note: vaccine labels will recommend that the vaccine should be either used or discarded after the first opening of the vial. For killed vaccines it's safe to continue to use the vaccine for the rest of the season or until expiration date IF it has been properly stored and handled. Always use a new sterile needle to draw from the vial. Keep the vial refrigerated or packed in cold bags all the time, DO NOT allow it to become warm. Live and modified live vaccines that need to be reconstituted must be used all at once.
    Do not use chemicals or disinfectants when sterilizing syringes, needles or skin for administering live vaccines
    Do not mix vaccines. Production of combined vaccines requires a very careful balancing of the components. However, more than one vaccine can be given at the same time by using separate syringes. These should be administered to separate parts of the body, at least 15 cm apart preferably on different sides of the animal.
    Modified-live vaccines should be reconstituted just prior to use, kept cold, out of sunlight and used within two hours.
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    Don't delay booster shots
    Don't delay booster vaccination shots too long after the first shot, or you will lose the benefit of the first shot.

    The first injection is designed to provide a primary immune response. The booster shot gives a secondary response. The primary response and secondary response work in tandem to provide maximum protection. Most of the immunity results after the second injection.

    The primary response of the first dose is fairly short-lived. When you wait too long to give the booster shot, the primary response could have already dissipated. In that case, the booster will actually provide another primary response instead of a secondary response.



    CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS C&D BACTERIN-TOXOID
    X
    Also BAR-VAC CD/T, VISION CD/T with Spur and FERMACON CD/T combos include tetanus toxoid.
    Dose: use sheep dose from lable, usually 2ml SC (SQ) in the web of the elbow: the axilla, behind the armpit.
    Vaccination schedules to raise antibody concentration of Clostridium perfringens in ewes and lambs.
    If dams have not had prenatally, or status of the dam is not known, kids should be inoculated at birth and then once a month for three months.

    This is the immunization that prevents ENTEROTOXEMIA , the quick, no warning killer of young animals previously mentioned.
    Withdrawal - 21 days
    Goats do not respond well to the C&D vaccines, for that reason it is recommend they be vaccinated at least twice yearly.
    Note: about 10-15% of immunized animals do NOT build an active immunity to this disease, and MAY STILL GET IT.
    Some areas of the country need immunization against additional clostridials.

    From Vet Res Commun 1996;20(6):481-92
    Enterotoxaemia in goats.
    Uzal FA, Kelly WR - Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Enterotoxaemia of sheep and goats occurs worldwide, but the condition in goats is poorly understood. The disease in goats is mostly caused by Clostridium perfringens type D, although the role of the toxins of this microorganism in the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. The disease occurs in three forms, peracute, acute and chronic, the cardinal clinical sign of the acute and chronic forms being diarrhoea. The main biochemical alterations are hyperglycaemia and glycosuria, while at necropsy the disease is often characterized by haemorrhagic colitis. The typical histological changes observed in the brain of sheep with enterotoxaemia are not considered to be a common feature of enterotoxaemia in goats. Although the pathogenesis of caprine enterotoxaemia has not yet been properly defined, it is usually accepted that the presence of C. perfringens type D in the small bowel, together with a sudden change to a diet rich in carbohydrates, is the main predisposing factor for the disease. Vaccination seems to be poorly effective in preventing caprine enterotoxaemia, which might be due to the fact that the enteric form of the disease is partially independent of circulating C. perfringens toxin. More studies are needed on caprine enterotoxaemia, especially of its pathogenesis and immunity, in order to develop more efficient control measures for this disease. PMID: 8950829, UI: 97108215

    Vet Rec 1998 Oct 24;143(17):472-4
    Variability of serum antibody responses of goat kids to a commercial Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxoid vaccine.

    Uzal FA, Bodero DA, Kelly WR, Nielsen K. Division of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Sciences, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

    Twenty-nine Angora goats were used in a trial of a commercial enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney disease) vaccine. The animals were allocated to four groups, of which three received an initial dose of vaccine, two also received a booster of the same vaccine either 28 or 42 days after the first vaccination, and the fourth remained as an unvaccinated control group. An indirect ELISA technique was used to measure the titres of Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon antitoxin in serum samples taken before vaccination and 17, 28, 42, 59, 70, 86, 98 and 128 days after vaccination. There was a wide range of antibody titres after vaccination, and the great majority of the vaccinated animals had titres below the protective level, arbitrarily set at 0.25 iu/ml, by day 98. PMID: 9829304, UI: 99046744


    More on local tissue reaction at the vaccine site:
    Enterotoxemia in the goat: the humoral response and local tissue reaction following vaccination with two different bacterin-toxoids. (Can J Comp Med - Blackwell TE, Butler DG, Bell JA)

    EXCERPT: Local tissue reactions at injection sites persisted for six months in 53% of the goats regardless of vaccine used or dosage administered.



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    Injection site reactions and antibody responses in sheep and goats after the use of multivalent clostridial vaccines.
    Vet Rec 1987 May 2;120(1Cool:435-9
    Green DS, Green MJ, Hillyer MH, Morgan KL
    Uncertainty concerning the use, efficacy and possible adverse effects of clostridial vaccination in goats prompted a study of the injection site reactions and antibody responses in 40 goats and 40 sheep. The vaccines used were Covexin 8, Heptavac and Tasvax 8. In all the animals swellings averaging 2.5 cm in diameter were present at the injection site seven days after vaccination and were still apparent 28 days after vaccination. The injection site reactions could not be attributed to faulty vaccination technique because they did not occur in a control group injected with sterile water. By 14 days the reactions were significantly larger in sheep than in goats and by 28 days the reactions to Covexin 8 were larger than those to the other vaccines in sheep and goats. Serum antibody was present in all groups before vaccination and, with the exception of the goats vaccinated with Heptavac, increased 14 days after vaccination. The increase was greater in sheep than in goats. By 28 days antibody levels had declined in all but the sheep vaccinated with Heptavac in which a further increase occurred. At that time, the antibody levels in vaccinated sheep were still higher than in the unvaccinated sheep whereas the antibody levels in vaccinated goats were no longer different from those in the control goats. These results suggest that there is a difference between the vaccines used and between the responses of the two species and support the clinical observation that the protection afforded to goats by multivalent clostridial vaccines is poorer than that afforded to sheep.

    PMID: 2885963
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    CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS TYPES C&D ANTITOXIN
    A serum antibody product that provides passive immunity via actual antibodies in a ready-to-use format.
    see earlier explanation of enterotoxemia
    Dose: 5 ml to young kids SC (SQ) for prevention of Enterotoxemia [gives 10-14 day passive immunity]
    Dose: 20ml (to kids) for therapy after signs of the disease are evident.
    These doses are doubled for older animals.
    IT IS ESSENTIAL TO KNOW WHERE IT IS AVAILABLE IN YOU AREA IN CASE OF AN EMERGENCY, as not all veterinarians to keep it on hand, and must be ordered ahead of time since the animal doesn't live long once affected. It must be administered immediately.
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    TETANUS
    (Lockjaw)
    Tetanus is caused by a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium tetani. The bacteria is always present in soil and manure, it enters the body by a deep cut or puncture, bone fracture, or after surgery. Once in the body the bacteria release their toxin which affects the central nervous system. Common symptoms include paralysis of the jaws, body spasms or convulsions. The disease is usually fatal from paralysis, dehydration and starvation. Symptoms appear about two to four weeks following infection, but if enough toxin is produced they may appear sooner.
    The tetanus bacterium, Clostridium tetani, can exist only when oxygen is absent (anaerobic).
    It exudes a toxin 50 times as poisonous as cobra venom and 150 times stronger than strychnine. one of the most deadly poisons known to man


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    . TETANUS ANTITOXIN
    A Treatment, not a vaccine
    Acts against the toxin, not C. tetani
    Check vial for strength. 150-200 international units (newborns) 1200-3000 (adults). Used after a wound or at theCheck vial for strength. 150-200 international units (newborns) 1200-3000 (adults).
    Used after a wound or at the time of any surgical procedure i.e.: disbudding, castration, tattooing, etc. Gives IMMEDIATE passive protection, for a maximum of 10 to 14 days. Animals that suffer slow healing puncture wounds or deep abrasions should be given a second dose of antitoxin in 7 days and additionally as considered necessary.
    Withdrawal: meat 21 days.
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    TETANUS TOXOID
    A Vaccine, not a treatment
    Protects against the toxin, not C. tetani
    1/2ml SC (SQ) or IM, repeated in 3-4 weeks, and again in 6 months, and then yearly thereafter gives permanent immunity for Tetanus, but it takes 10-14 days for the body to begin producing an active immunity to provide protection.
    OTHER INFORMATION: Store in dark at 2 to 7 degrees C. Do not freeze.
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    STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BACTERIN TOXOID
    w
    " Lysigin" by Boehringer, formerly "Somato-Staph" by Anchor
    Dose: 2ml SC (SQ) given twice, 2 wks apart, then monthly for three months, and 4 to 6 wks prior to freshening, and another 2 ml booster given 6 mos later and annually thereafter.
    Administered at 6 months of age or later. This toxoid confers immunity in only a small amount of cases, as it is presently produced.
    Staph aureus is responsible for 90% of the mastitis found in goats, and a particularly sinister type, acute gangrene mastitis, can kill a goat quickly at worst, and destroys udder tissue permanently at best. Staph aureus is also responsible for STAPH IMPETIGO, the little scabby pustules sometimes found on udders, which do not seem to respond well to topical preparations. Some cow dairy producers feel that staph aureus bacterina toxoid administered as part of their routine vaccination program(s) results in fewer casesgangrene mastitis. While we had problems with gangrene mastitis when our animals were compromised by copper deficiency, we seldom see it in goats in this area anymore.


    Last updated 12/23/2001
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    This has been complied as information only, it is not intended as a means of diagnosing and treating an animal or to replace professional veterinary advice or care for your animals. This information is not intended to be a comprehensive review of any drugs, their uses, side effects, or special considerations. Veterinary consultation is vital when treating sick animals. Responsible decisions concerning treatments and drug safety or effectiveness must be made by each individual and their veterinarian. Never disregard veterinary advice or delay in seeking it as a result of information provided on this site. The administration of any medication should be taken very seriously.Medications given in the wrong circumstance, via the wrong route, or in the wrong combination can hurt or kill. The anecdotal information, experiences and thoughts are my own or those I’ve personal knowledge of and are not meant to represent the management practices or thinking of goat breeders in general or the veterinary community. This information is presented without guarantees, and the author disclaims all liability in connection with the use of this information. The extra-label use of any product in a food producing animal is illegal without a prescription from a veterinarian the includes the milk and meat withdrawal information (seeELDU Q&A ).
    Last updated6/17/2002

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