Nutrition : Vitamin and Mineral information

Discussion in 'Health & Wellness' started by, Dec 16, 2007.

  1. New Member


    Minerals.... What You Need To Know

    We are finding that the "maps" that list the minerals in the land are turning out to be wrong. We are also finding that there are many factors that affect the absorption of minerals that are key to whether or not our animals can maintain the proper mineral balance. Even if you test your land and find that there is adequate minerals in the ground, the Ph balance and other factors can render the animals unable to breakdown or utlize the minerals.

    To understand how trace minerals affect immune competency, a brief review of immune system function is in order. The purpose of the immune system is to render harmless a foreign agent which may be a bacterium, protozoan, virus or noninfectious entity such a chemical or toxin. The immune system uses several methods to detoxify these foreign agents or antigens.


    Correct Copper levels in the diet has been shown to affect the resistance of sheep to bacterial infections. In certain studies Copper supplementation has shown to decrease mortality. Infections found mainly in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs, apparently were more damaging because of enhanced inflammatory reactions when the animals were copper deficient.

    Resistance to internal parasites is also compromised with copper deficiency. Infections also reduced plasma copper levels in the deficient animals, but not in the copper supplemented animals. In grazing areas with a parasite load, having adequate copper in the diet is a key to controlling the worm burden.

    It is widely recognized that feeder cattle from a copper deficient areas are less responsive to vaccinations for diseases associated with shipping fever compared to cattle that have adequate copper. Diets that are high in Molybdenum and sulfur can compromise the copper status of cattle by forming insoluble complexes in the rumen. Research has also shown that copper concentrations in organs such as the liver, spleen, thymus and lungs were substantially reduced by copper deficiency. This helps to explain why copper deficient cattle are at a greater risk for infection that are the copper supplemented cattle.

    Here are some signs and things that copper controls:

    1. Anemia
    2. Essential in the proper development of the central nervous system
    3. Correct bone
    4. Correct hair pigmentation
    5. Difficulty conceiving kids (short heat cycles, not taking etc)
    6. Abortions are not uncommon
    7. Immune system
    8. Lack of growth
    9. Retained placenta
    10.White or ghost circles around the eyes
    11.Delayed shedding of hair coat, extreme hair loss/rough coat
    12.Lowered libido in males
    13 Slight hoof deformities
    14.Bent legs in yearlings
    15.Immune deficiency problems such as frequent bouts with pneumonia
    16.Copper deficiency may play a major role in Floppy Kid Syndrome if the dams were copper-deficient, leaving the kids with only enough stored copper for a week to ten days after being born.

    Copper can be interfered with by minerals known as copper antagonists. Lead, iron, manganese, various sulfates, cadmium and molybdenum. This is secondary copper deficiency.

    Congenital Copper deficiency is the term used to describe the kid who did not receive sufficient copper in utero. Often born swaybacked, the kid stands unsteady or cannot stand, displays muscle tremors and head shaking, and may grind it's teeth. The kid can see, hear and sometimes can nurse , but he has low blood sugar and subnormal body temperature. Bone abnormalities are common, particularly in the long bones of the body. Complete recovery from congenital copper deficiency does not often happen because problems that occurred during fetal development may not be correctable. With intensive nursing, swaybacked kids may survive for days or weeks, but they usually do not live long.

    Insufficient weight gain, poor appetite and weight loss are seen in copper-deficient goats of growing age.

    Adults display more subtle signs of copper deficiency. They are generally unthrifty, anemic, poor milk producers and sometimes have diarrhea. But the most visible sign of copper deficiency in adults is loss of hair color or bald tail tips. Copper is essential for melanin production that causes hair pigmentation. Hair decoloration occurs when copper-containing enzymes is missing.


    Iron is an interesting trace element in that either a deficiency or an excess can compromise the immune system. It has been well documented that serum irons fall early in response to bacterial and viral infections and rebounds quickly Keith recover. This is believed to be an important protective component of the acute phase response to infection. With Pasteurella Haemolytica, a major respiratory pathogen of cattle and sheep, the iron-regulated cell wall proteins have been identified as important vaccine components because of their antigenicity. If iron is in great excess, then the key proteins required to initiate recognition and antibody production may be masked.


    Selenium is recognized as an immune stimulant. Often Selenium and Vit E are supplemented together as they play similar roles. Selenium is a intercellular antioxidant. Vitamin E is the major antioxidant in cell membranes. When Both Selenium and Vitamin E are deficient, impairment of mitogenic stimulation occurs even earlier. Data suggest that optimum immune response required adequate levels of both selenium and Vitamin E.

    Oxidative stress may be the link that explains the interactions between animals stress, nutritional deficiencies and the decreased disease resistance often observed in the field.

    In cattle, the production of reactive oxygen metabolite's can be increased by the consumption of Maillard reaction products, mycotoxins, and endophyte -infected tall fescue. Unbound or "ill place" iron can increase the production of reactive oxygen metabolite's. Miller (1993) showed that inflammation, infections and environmental stressed may encourage the formation of ill-placed iron. Under these conditions the need for antioxidants is increased. If the animals are marginally deficient in selenium and or vit E, the responsiveness of their immune system is impaired. These animals are more likely to become diseased and or die, while animals with a strong immune system may show no symptoms.

    In the past few years there has been an effort to increase the energy density of animal diets. With calorie-dense diets animal performance is maximized, feed efficiency is improved and less animal waste is generated. Fat additions are a common means of increasing caloric density. However recent data suggest that adding certain types of fat can increase the requirements for antioxidant's. If not met the oxidant deficiency may increase an animals susceptibility to disease.
    Large-scale animal production units are constantly seeking ways to minimize stress and enhance immune function. Antibiotic feeding has been used in many production settings to control subclinical diseases. Although this has been effective in the past and the real dangers of continued use are still controversial, it is likely that this practice will become increasingly regulated in the future. Consequently, maximizing the immune status of the animal is critical to optimum health and longevity. Antioxidant concentrations in the diet, especially selenium and vitamin E , will receive increase emphasis. Feeding a trace mineralized salt and vitamin premix that have been properly fortified with selenium and vitamin E, respectively is essential to maintaining animal health and productivity.


    The only known animal requirement for cobalt is as a constitute of Vitamin B12, which has 4% Cobalt in it's chemical stature. This means that a cobalt deficiency is really a vitamin B12 deficiency.
    Microorganisms in the rumen are able to synthesize Vitamin B12 needs of ruminants if the diet is adequate in coblat. Normally, cobalt is not stored in the body in significant quantities. The small amount that is stored does not easily pass back into the rumen or intestinal tract where it can be used for vitamin B12 synthese. Therefore, ruminants must consume cobalt frequently in the diet for adequate B12 sythese. Injected cobalt is ineffective.

    The fact that injected cobalt is ineffective agrees with the recent research which suggest that cobalt deficiency in the rumen may be more important then a vitamin B12 deficiency at the tissue level. Traditionally, a breakdown in propionate metabolism at the point in the metabolic pathway where methymalony-CoA is converted to succinyl-CoA, was thought to be the reason for the depression in appetite. However, Kennedy, showed that there massive increases in succinate concentrations in the rumen within two weeks of when sheep were fed a cobalt deficient diet. When sheep were fed a diet with only 0.02 ppm cobalt, succinate accumulation in the rumen began in two days.. It has been well documented that changes in the rumen microbial population occurs in cobalt deficient ruminants. it now appears that a cobalt deficiency causes a vitamin B12 deficiency which inhibits propionate producing bacteria such a Selenomonas ruminantuim.

    University of Florida scientists reported in 1976 that 43% of the 140 forage samples taken throughout Latin American had cobalt levels of 0.1 ppm or less. Cobalt deficiency is most common in high rainfall areas where the soil is derived from acid igneous rocks such as granite and subject to leaching. Heavy liming of pastures has been associated with increased risk of cobalt deficiency.

    With current knowledge, the most convincing evidence of cobalt deficiency is determined by the response of the animal to cobalt feeding. The response is quick, with appetite increasing in about a week and weight gains quickly following. The remission of the anemia, however, occurs more slowly.
    Last edited by a moderator: Sep 1, 2013
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  3. New Member

    Re: Vitamin and Mineral information


    All of our minerals are formulated to be oxide free. Why is this so important?

    We strive to supply the most stable, most bioavailable forms of minerals available. In general, oxides tend to be the least stable and the least bioavailable. Therefore, as a general rule of thumb, we do not use oxides for any mineral source. Not all minerals have the same stability. Feed tags may have terms such as proteinated, chelated and other terms. On Meadow Mate tags you will find these terms. Proteinates are derived by reacting a mineral salt with an enzymatically prepared mixture of amino acids and small peptides under controlled conditions. The result is a mineral-organic complex called a ìchelateî. Chelation literally means ëa bringing togetherí, that being mineral salts reacted with a specially prepared mixture of amino acids to form a mineral proteinate.

    This form of chelation must occur within the animal for metals to be absorbed, and so is naturally recognized by the animal. A good example of this is the chelation between Iron and Hemoglobin within the body aiding transport of oxygen. The minerals of use in chelate form are the trace elements Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, copper and Zinc. The goal of forming chelates of these nutritionally important elements is to increase the bioavailability of the mineral to the goat. Solubility is critical for trace mineral absorption, however during digestion changes in the chemical environment (pH, redox potential) and numerous reactions among digestion products alter trace mineral solubility. Chelates are stable, electrically neutral complexes which protect trace minerals from chemical reactions during digestion that would render the mineral unavailable to the animal. Conventional inorganic mineral supplements, typically added in oxide or sulfide form (i.e., zinc or manganese oxide) are released (ionized) at the low pH of the stomach. In this electrically charged form Zn+2 in the case of zinc) the mineral is able to react with other products of digestion. A complex with an organic ligand must form if absorption is to occur, however often formation of an insoluble, unavailable substance is the result.

    Not all minerals needed in animal nutrition are capable of forming chelate complexes. The nutritionally important trace minerals are chemically unique. Iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc belong to a section of the Periodic Table called ìtransitional elementsî. Transition means they have chemical characteristics more or less between the metal and non-metal elements. In particular, the transition minerals bond differently than do other nutritionally important minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus. Instead of forming the ionic or covalent bonds that link the major minerals, transition elements prefer to form coordinate covalent bonds. This hybrid form of linkage gives transition minerals their unique ability to form stable complexes (coordination complexes or chelates). A complex of this type between the transition metal and an organic compound (amino acid or small peptide) is useful in animal nutrition to protect trace minerals during digestion. This method of optimizing absorption is especially important given the low quantity and critical need for these minerals.

    The chelate is formed between a trace mineral and a chelating agent. The chelating agent (called a ligand) must be able to bind the metal at more than one point such that the metal atom becomes part of a ring. The term chelate is derived from the chele or claw of a lobster. Imagine a marble held by the thumb and index finger of both hands. This represents a chelate bound to the two organic ligands such as amino acids.

    Certain amino acids and protein digestion products such as small peptides make useful chelating agents because they contain at least two functional groups (amino and hydroxyl groups) that can form the ring structure with a transition metal.

    The amino acids and small peptides used in Meadow Mate are derived from vegetable sources.

    Why not just increase additional levels of inexpensive inorganic mineral sources? Bioavailability of inorganic sources may vary from as low as 5-20% to as high as 80-90% depending on physical form and reactions with other dietary nutrients. While low availabilities can be numerically corrected by over-addition, nutrient imbalances create difficulties of their own. Absorption of many trace minerals is affected by the concentrations of other minerals. An example is the poor absorption of copper in the presence of molybdenum. Likewise, dietary formulation changes are frequently made which change considerably the pH and/or redox potential of the feed such as high levels of copper in the form of CuSO4 or addition of unsaturated fats of Vitamin C (chelator). changes in mineral concentrations of the diet to account for low availability may serve to alter the type of balance of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring in the gut or in mineral-vitamin premixes, but may not necessarily provide the nutrient amount calculated.

    The main purpose of a chelate is to protect the mineral from becoming involved in undesirable chemical reactions in the gut which form insoluble complexes that are eventually excreted. Chelates do not become ìlocked-upî in the intestine and wasted like inorganic metal salts. Upon reaching the sites of absorption the chelates are in a more available form to the animal. This also leads to lower concentrations of metals in the excreta, an added bonus from the waste management and environmental standpoint.

    The chelated mineral reaches the plasma intact, and separates only at the site of action, ensuring maximum performance of the proteinated mineral.
    Trace mineral availability is often low because mineral released during acid digestion forms an insoluble compound once pancreatic bicarbonate restores a more neutral (higher) pH in the intestine. to test Meadow Mateís proteinated mineralís solubility, researchers in the Biochemistry Department at the national University of Ireland followed changes over a pH range of 4.5 to 10.0. They found that all four proteinates (Cu, Mn, Co and Zn) retained the desired solubility characteristics.

    Proteinates and chelates are types of complexes, but not all complexes are chelate compounds. Proteinates, such as those found in Meadow Mate, are formed by chelation of soluble metal salts with amino acids or partially hydrolized protein. Metal complexes can be formed by merely mixing metal salt and an amino acid, but formation of the ring structure and coordinate covalent bond in a true chelate is a chemical event requiring exacting reaction conditions. Organic acids such as fumaric, citric and gluconic also form metal complexes, but do not form the ring-structured chelate because they lack an amino group.

    Genetic selection for maximum production of milk, meat, hair and offspring has increased the need for optimum trace mineral availability to support metabolic function. This need becomes critical when demand for extra nutrients for pregnancy, rapid growth, stress or disease conditions are superimposed on production requirements. Use proteinated minerals during periods of high nutritional demand or physiological change such as birth and during the re-breeding cycle. where mineral deficiencies occur use proteinates to correct them quickly and efficiently.
    Proteinates are used to supply 10-30% of the required dietary trace mineral concentration. Certain situations may suggest use of the Meadow Mate proteinated mineral as a supplement rather than a substitute, an example being use of Zinc Proteinate found in Walk-Rite where hoof problems are related to mineral deficiencies.

    Chelating is not a new idea. In the late 1960ís chelating agents such as EDTA were used as carriers to incorporate synthetic agents which would otherwise be rejected by the body as foreign. Unfortunately, these types of chelating carriers were found ineffective because they did not release the particular mineral or compound for absorption. Meadow mate proteinated minerals imitate those naturally present in the body and release the trace mineral at the site of action. The carrier peptide has also been shown to have a biological role within the animal. Hence, a dual action of preferred absorption can also lead to increased levels of a required amino acid or peptide within the animal.

    SUMMARY of Proteinates
    Proteinates are chelated minerals.
    They are an effective nutritional aid.
    They should be used as problem solving tools by a qualified animal nutritionist.
    The major benefits of the Meadow Mate proteinate series are:
    A. Improved reproductive per-
    B. Improved health and disease
    C. Improved soundness
    D. Improved growth
    The Meadow Mate proteinate series work by:
    A. Improved availability
    B. Targeting specific tissues
    and systems
    C. Improving cellular oxygen
    metabolism efficiency
    D. Improving immune response
    Inclusion rate of the Meadow Mate proteinate series varies from zero to 65 percent of total mineral level depending upon the desired function or response.

    Highly available forms of Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium and Sulfur are usually referred to as the major minerals. Calcium and Phosphorous are the two most important mineral required. A proper balance of minerals triggers the digestive processes and promotes a more efficient utilization of other foodstuffs in the rations. Imbalance or deficiency is indirectly the cause of milk fever, reproduction problems, weak kids and many related problems.

    Always remember to select the right Calcium-Phosphorous ratio mineral to balance your source of forage. If you have questions, always consult a qualified nutritional consultant or call the Meadow Mate staff for advise.

    Our premium mineral products include the related trace minerals required for optimum animal health and production. Trace minerals, though needed in small amounts, are just as important to health as the major minerals. Our trace minerals used in the premium products are guaranteed levels of highly available forms of trace minerals derived from multiple sources and appear in the proper balance to meet the needs of todayís high production animals.

    Minerals play an important role in the growth and maintenance of healthy livestock. Minerals come from the soil, are absorbed through plants and eaten by the animals. Because of various soil deficiencies due to a variety of causes (geography, abuse, pollution) most goat producers find it necessary to supplement their feeding rations with minerals. There are several aspects to be considered when selecting a mineral product for supplementation.

    In order for mineral to function properly, they have to be in balance or in proper ration to one another. Excesses of certain minerals will cause deficiencies in certain other minerals. On the other hand, deficiencies in certain mineral will cause others to be malabsorbed or poorly utilized leading to further deficiency. A proper ratio is the key.

    Using the most up-to-date research data available, our Meadow Mate products have been formulated with much attention to the delicate balance of minerals required for goat nutritional needs.

    Each mineral is available from a variety of sources. These sources vary in the bodyís ability to absorb and use them and their market price. Not surprisingly, these two factors are closely related. Guaranteed analysis does not necessarily reflect the amounts of mineral actually available to be used by the animal. The goat producer must be mindful of the sources used to fully evaluate the mineral supplementís actual worth.

    Meadow Mate minerals are formulated without using oxides, but rather selecting those sources with high bioavailability.

    Although we have been talking about minerals, and zinc is certainly a mineral, because of its importance, it bears addressing individually, if only briefly. Years of research have established zinc as one of the most active minerals in nutrition. Zinc is necessary for the activity of more than 90 enzymes associated with energy and protein metabolism. Deficiencies of zinc can result in growth retardation, foot problems, skin lesions, diarrhea, impaired wound healing, poor immune response and impaired reproduction.

    But just adding zinc to the diet from any source is no guarantee that it will be assimilated by the animal. The absorption of inorganic forms of zinc (such as zinc sulfate and zinc oxide) can be affected by diet-related factors such as phytic acid, plant phytates, calcium, copper, cadmium, cobalt, phosphates and certain levels and types of proteins. But with Meadow Mateís zinc proteinate complexes, the bioavailability of zinc is greatly increased and there is o binding or tying up with other important nutrients.