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Use of Antimicrobials in Food Animals
(Special Report by AABP)
"The antibiotic era is barely 60 years old, yet the inappropriate use of these drugs threatens our ability to cope with infections"
Drs. R.P. Wenzel and M.B. Edmond
Virginia Commonwealth University

Drug Family: Folic Acid Inhibitors
References Sulfonamides

Sulfonamides are broad-spectrum antimicrobials inhibiting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some protozoa, such as coccidia. Sulfonamides are widely distributed throughout the body, and cross the placenta (some teratogenic effects have been seen when very high doses were given to pregnant mice and rats).
NOTE: Sulfaquinoxaline is minimally absorbed systemically and is referred to as an enteric sulfonamide.
Resistance of animal pathogens to sulfonamides is widespread as a result of more than 50 years of therapeutic use and this limits their effectiveness. Cross-resistance between sulfonamides is considered complete. BACTERIOSTATIC.....

Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim & Sulfadiazine/Trimethoprim combo's listed becuase they are so frequently used.
Data and studies indicate that
Trimethoprim is inactivated after oral administration in ruminants.
This occurs also with the sulfa-trimethoprim combinations that have been used orally in extralabel applications (Byrne, personal communic. 1999) in ruminants.
BRAND NAMES : Septra® Uroplus® SS
TMP/SMX Sulfamethoprim® Cotrim® (Canada & US)
TMP/SMZ Sulfatrim® Cotrim® DS(Canada & US)
Bactrim® Sulfatrim® DS Di-Trim® (Canada & US)
Septra® DS Uroplus® DS
Antibacterial, systemic --Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim; Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim
Antiprotozoal --Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim
Cotrim® (Canada Cotrim® DS (Canada) Di-Trim® (Canada)
Antibacterial, systemic --Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim; Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim


DOSE : 30mg/kg (665mg/50 pounds) twice daily . The most common tablets are 960mg. = one 960mg tablet per 70-75 pounds twice daily.
Plasma levels are achieved in approximately 6 hours following oral dosage.
A broad spectrum antioibiotic and sulfa combination with a wide spectrum of activity against gram neagtive and positive organisims. Sulfonamides (sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole) are bacteriostatic and trimethoprim is bacteriocidal. In combination, they are bacteriocidal.
Effective against Actinomyces spp., B. anthracis, Bordetella, Brucella, Clostridia, Corynebacterium, e-coli , Haemophillus, Klebsiella, pasturella, Proteus, Salmonella spp., Staphylococci. Streptococci and Vibro spp.
For respiratory, urinary tract, skin, and gastrointestinal infections, and infections with coccidia.
There is some question about the oral use of trimethoprim in ruminents. Some thoughts are that it is perhaps significantly degraded in the rumen.
CONTRAINDICATIONS : Untreated dehydration.
CAUTION: Prolonged use may decrease thyroid function and affect tear production in the eye.
Store at room temperature in a tight container.
Not approved for lactating animals in the US.
WITHDRAWAL (cattle) (Canada) - 3 days for T/sulfadiazine, 10 days T/sulfadoxine.
MILK DISCARD (cattle) (Canada) - 96 hours for T/sulfadiazine or T/sufladoxine.


Vet. Res. 32 (2001) 261-273
(Received 7 December 2000; accepted 7 February 2001)
Resistance to trimethoprim and sulfonamides
Ola Sköld
Division of Microbiology, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, PO Box 581, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim have been used for many decades as efficient and inexpensive antibacterial agents for animals and man. Resistance to both has, however, spread extensively and rapidly. This is mainly due to the horizontal spread of resistance genes, expressing drug-insensitive variants of the target enzymes dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase, for sulfonamide and trimethoprim, respectively. Two genes, sul1 and sul2, mediated by transposons and plasmids, and expressing dihydropteroate synthases highly resistant to sulfonamide, have been found. For trimethoprim, almost twenty phylogenetically different resistance genes, expressing drug-insensitive dihydrofolate reductases have been characterized. They are efficiently spread as cassettes in integrons, and on transposons and plasmids. One particular gene, dfr9, seems to have originally been selected in the intestine of swine, where it was found in Escherichia coli, on large plasmids in a disabled transposon, Tn5393, originally found in the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora . There are also many examples of chromosomal resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim, with different degrees of complexity, from simple base changes in the target genes to transformational and recombinational exchanges of whole genes or parts of genes, forming mosaic gene patterns. Furthermore, the trade-off, seen in laboratory experiments selecting resistance mutants, showing drug-resistant but also less efficient (increased Ks) target enzymes, seems to be adjusted for by compensatory mutations in clinically isolated drug-resistant pathogens. This means that susceptibility will not return after suspending the use of sulfonamide and trimethoprim.


.. SULFAQUINOXALINE [20% solution] - Coccidia treatment.
DOSE 6mg/lb daily for 5 days.
for SULFAQUINOXALINE 20% solution (200 mg per mL) :
Drench: 2ml/50 lbs orally for 5 days.
Water: 1oz/10 gallons (animals will need to drink 1 quart of solution for each 25 lbs of body weight to get an effective dose).
NOTE: Sulfaquinoxaline is minimally absorbed systemically and is referred to as an enteric (Of, relating to, or being within the intestine) sulfonamide.

PRODUCT Hess & Clark brand 20% Sulfaquinoxaline Sodium Solution, in 16-ounce bottles, product is added to drinking water to teat infections in chickens, turkeys, cattle and calves.
CODE Lot #07397 EXP OCT 02.
MANFACTURER Hess & Clark Inc., Ashland, Ohio.
DISTRIBUTION Alabama, Oklahoma, Missouri, Hawaii, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Kansas, Ohio, and Texas.
QUANTITY 27 cases (12 bottles per case) were distributed.
REASON An extended expiration date was used on the label. Stability data existed only for 2 years as packaged in 16-ounce bottles.


note the different strengths
34.4 mg per mL (OTC) [liquid Sulfa-Nox].Dose: 11.5mL/50 lbs
200 mg per mL (OTC) [Sulfa-Q20%; GENERIC] Dose: 2mL/50 lbs
286.2 mg per mL - (29% solution) (OTC) [Sulquin 6-50] Dose: 1.4 (1.5)mL/50 lbs
340 mg per mL (OTC) [34% Sul-Q-Nox]. Dose: 1.1mL/50 lbs
...... ALBON® & DI-METHOX® [both are sulfadimethoxine]. For coccidia and scours.
DOSE : 25 mg of sulfadimethoxine per pound (55mg/kg) day one, 12.5mg per lb (27mg.kg) days 2-5.
Also used for pneumonia and misc. bacterial infectious processes.
See injectable Albon (Albon Injection-40%) information under Injectable Antibiotics.
WITHDRAWAL (boluses) : Meat 7 days. Milk discard 60 hours.
Albon®[ Albon 12.5% solution ]Dose rateof the 12.5% oral solution is 10ml/50 lbs on day 1 then 5ml/50 lbs days 2-5.
Albon®[ Albon boluses -5 gm and 15 gmDose rate - 1 gm per 40 lbs day 1 then reduce dosage by half for days 2-5.
Albon®[ Albon soluble powder ] in 107 gm pkts - Labeled for drinking water. One 107 gm pkt medicates 50 gallons of water. As a drench, disolve one pkt (107 gms) in two cups of water, dose at 13 ml/cc per 100 pounds on day 1 and 6.5 ml/cc days 2-5, or, 1.5 cc/ml per 10 pounds day 1 then 3/4 cc/ml days 2-5 (keep refrigerated).

References Sulfonamides


Albon-S.R. [Sulfadimethoxine]
Albon Tablets [Sulfadimethoxine]
Bovazine SR Calf Bolus [Sulfamethazine] Bovazine SR Cattle Bolus [Sulfamethazine]
Calfspan [Sulfamethazine]
CalfSpan [Sulfamethazine]
Di-Methox 12.5% Oral Solution [Sulfadimethoxine]
Di-Methox Injection-40% [Sulfadimethoxine]
Hava-Span [Sulfamethazine]
Liquid Sulfa-Nox [Sulfaquinoxaline]
Powder 21 [Sulfamethazine and Sulfathiazole]
S-125 [Sulfadimethoxine]
S-250 [Sulfadimethoxine]
S-M-T [Sulfamethazine and Sulfathiazole]
Sulfa 2 [Sulfamethazine and Sulfathiazole] Sulfa "25" [Sulfamethazine]
Sulfa 25% [Sulfamethazine]
Sulfalean [Sulfamethazine and Sulfathiazole]
Sulfa-Max III [Sulfamethazine]
Sulfa-Max III Calf Bolus [Sulfamethazine] 2 Sulfamed [Sulfamethazine and Sulfathiazole]
Sulfa MT [Sulfamethazine and Sulfathiazole]
Sulfa-Q20% [Sulfaquinoxaline]
Sulfasol [Sulfadimethoxine]
Sulfasure [Sulfamethazine]
Sulfasure SR [Sulfamethazine]
Sulfasure SR Calf Bolus [Sulfamethazine]
SulfaTech Calf Bolus [Sulfamethazine]
SulfaTech Cattle Bolus [Sulfamethazine]
Sulforal [Sulfadimethoxine] Sulmet Drinking Water Solution [Sulfamethazine]
Sulmet Oblets [Sulfamethazine]
Sulmet Soluble Powder [Sulfamethazine] 34% Sul-Q-Nox [Sulfaquinoxaline]
Sulquin 6-50 [Sulfaquinoxaline]
Suprasulfa III Calf Bolus [Sulfamethazine]
Suprasulfa SR [Sulfamethazine]
Sustain III [Sulfamethazine]
Sustain III Calf Bolus [Sulfamethazine]
Triple Sulfa Bolus [Sulfamethazine, Sulfanilamide, and Sulfathiazole]
Vetisulid [Sulfachlorpyridazine]
Vetisulid Boluses [Sulfachlorpyridazine]
Vetisulid Powder [Sulfachlorpyridazine
References for Page 4

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Re: Oral Preparations~copied from Saanendoah.com

BIOSOL® (Neomycin) - dosage by weight listed on bottle. When combined with immediate removal of causative agent (i.e.: too much milk, too much grain) stops scours caused by overfeeding, or non-bacterially induced gastritis (intestinal irritation). It will not cure scours caused by coccidia, E-coli, etc. unless combined with further antibiotic therapy (it will stop the scours temporarily, but they will continue to return until the causative organism is removed from the system .
WITHDRAWAL : 30 days. Approved for nonlactating goats.Not approved for lactating animals.

WITHDRAWAL : Cattle - 1 day - Sheep - 2 days - Swine and goats - 3 days



Benedryl (Diphenhydramine HCI), also sold under misc brand names.
NOT FOR ACUTE ANAPHYLACTIC ALLERGIC REACTION, as this is a true emergency situation and there is no time allowed for the oral antihistamine to be ingested and take effect.
DOSE : 5 ml (teaspoon) for very young kids to 15-20ml to adults animals for treatment of mild allergic reaction to bite/sting, medication.
Also as nasal decongestant and cough medication..
Will counteract the slower form of allergic and histamine reaction which takes place sometime in the 24hr period after severe stress or injection of something to which the goat is allergic.
Dimetapp - a good nasal decongestant etc. works well for kids. I've also used Tavist-D, Chlor-Trimeton (Chlorpheniramine Maleate) and Seldane (Terfenadine - no longer available) with good results.
A MUST to have on hand if you are maintaining pregnant does.
Propylene glycol is a glucose precursor that elicits an insulin response. An excellent rapidly available energy source as well as being glycogenic. Propylene Glyncol may be used in prevention and treatment of ketosis. It has an approved health claim for this use.
DOSE : 3-4oz (90-120ml) 2 times daily, for 2 days, and then 1-2oz (30ml-60) 2 times daily until animal is eating satisfactorily again.
Can also be used as a diluent for oral administration of non-water soluble drugs, i.e. ivermectin.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION : FDA 21CFR§ 582.4666 - IFN #8-03-809
ALSO SEE: Differentiating Hypocalcemia from Milk Fever, Pregnancy Toxemia, Paturient Paresis and Ketosis and Ketosis: What It Is And How It Happens By Sue Reith
top C-M-P-K & MFO

INDICATIONS : For use as a supplemental nutritive source of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION : Administer orally as a drench. The usual dose for adult goats is 1 oz (30 ml.)
Store at room temperature.
Each 30ml (1 oz) contains:
Calcium chemically equivalent to complexed calcium borogluconate ... 26% (3 g.)
Dextrose ... 15.0%
Phosphorus ... 0.3 g. (as sodium hypophosphite, H20)
Magnesium ... 0.06 g. (as magnesium chloride hexahydrate)
Potassium ... 0.03 g. (as potassium chloride).
Benzyl alcohol ... 1.5%
In a suitable base.
ALSO SEE : Differentiating Hypocalcemia from Milk Fever, Pregnancy Toxemia, Paturient Paresis and Ketosis and Ketosis: What It Is And How It Happens By Sue Reith


DOSAGE on packet or bottle - can be administered in the drinking water or as a drench.
To treat clinical cases dose 11.3 - 23 mg/lb daily in feed or water for 5 days.
To prevent coccidiosis 2.3mg per pound (5 mg/kg) body weight daily for 21 days.

An alternative to sulfa for treatment of coccidia, though the sulfas are a better choice for treatment of coccidiosis or severe coccidia problems.

Amprolium is an antagonist of thiamine (vitamin B1), one of the essential vitamins, and thus interferes with the metabolism of the parasites.


AMPROLIUM (CORID) aids in prevention at5mg/kg. Aids in control at 10mg/kg.
DECOQUINATE (DECCOX) for prevention at 0.5mg/kg
LASALOCID (BOVATEC) for control at 1mg/kg
MONENSIN (RUMENSIN) for prevention at 1.2mg/kg 0.4. For control at 0.8mg/kg
These products have varying levels of anticoccidial activity at their label doses. A good coccidiostat can break the life cycle of parasites so they can't reproduce and spread infection, stopping them before they multiply and create massive gut damage.

Rumen inoculant. Probiotic. Contains specific, beneficial bacilli (bacteria) to keep the rumen working. I use anytime I feel an animal is "off", I like to use probios and vitamin B complex as my first line of defense. Yogurt containing active cultures (check the label) can be used in an emergency, but is not as specific as Probios and other products formulated for goats. Use during and following antibiotic treatment (antibiotics kill off the good bacteria along with the bad). 5gms for kids, 10gms adults.

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Re: Oral Preparations~copied from Saanendoah.com


Also see injectable pain and anti-inflammatory durgs
It is important to realize that the NSAIDs do not speed healing or cure the underlying condition causing the problem or infection. Because the NSAIDs can mask the severity of a problem or infection, it is important to use these drugs with proper veterinary evaluation and other appropriate therapy. Nor do they effect the normal perception of feeling or cause numbness in any area. NSAIDs are not painkillers, in terms of directly reducing or effecting the perception of pain. NSAIDs work to reduce the local inflammatory process by blocking the production of prostaglandins. The analgesic effect (pain relief) comes from reducing the hypersensitivity to pain stimuli that is found in inflamed tissues.
extra label in goats
A NSAID anti-inflammatory for pain, especially of the joints, muscles, fever reduction.
DOSE at 4.5 - 10 mg/lb once dialy.
Be careful with long termdaily use, bute can cause stomach upset and ulcers.
Not approved for food producing animals.
WITHDRAWAL = Goats: 5 days milk, 14 days meat - source: 10-12,2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP
Dose calc reformulated/presented to be more user friendly on 12/04/2000
A NSAID anti-inflammatory for pain, especially of the joints, muscles, fever reduction.
Aspirin is poorly absorbed from the rumen so a relatively high dose is needed.
100 mg/kg (45 mg per pound) twice a day:
65mg = 1 grain (Regular adult ASA contain 5 grains, or 325 mg.)
At 45mg per pound the ruminant dose per 100# would be 4,500mg (69.2 grains) or 13 5grain ASA tablets.
4,500mg div by 65 (1grain) =69.2 grain divided by 5 (amount of ASA per tablet) = 13.84 325mg/5 grain tablets per 100 pounds.
Not approved " unofficial" withdrawal: milk=24 hours, meat =1 day
Sources of ruminant dosing rates for ASA:
October - December 2000 "Wool & Wattles, AASRP
Veterinary Drug Handbook 3rd Edition,1999, Donald Plumb
(Koritz 1986) (Jenkins 1987)
The Merck Veterinary Manual, 8th Edition
Veterinary Drug Therapy, Burragry, 1994
Veterinary Values, 5th Edition, 1998
Aspirin Pharmacokinetics
GOAT T1/2 (hrs) Vz (l/kg) Clt (l/kg/hr) Dose (mg/kg) Interval (hrs)
0.80 0.240 0.202 50 - 100 12 - 24

NOTE: The damage that aspirin and other NSAIDs (see below) does to stomach and instestines (GI epithelium) has to do with the inhibition of prostaglandins, not the acidity of the drug itself. Despite this fact the literature is full of anecdotal information about "safe" forms of aspirin:
Buffered Aspirin - Buffering is not enough to change gastric acidity. It is present to enhance the rate at whci the tables dissolve, thus shortening the absorption rate of the aspirin.
Aspirin with Maalox - Antacid component does alter gastric pH. Whether this is important to protect the GI tract is unclear. Probably insignificant compared to effects of Misoprostol (below).
Enteric coated aspirin - Since the acidic properties of aspirin are not the cause of ulceration it has little protective effect. Additionally, the enteric coating can cause the absorption rate to be erratic and unpredicable.
Toxicity: ALL NSAID s (Non-S teroidal Anti- InflammatoryDrugs) work by blocking prostaglandins (see above) - chemicals that cause the symptoms of pain and inflammation. Unfortunately, there are also "good" prostaglandins that maintain blood flow to the kidneys and the lining of the stomach and intestines. All NSAID drugs have the potential to cause kidney damage and ulcers in the stomach and intestines. The risk of toxicity is greater in the very young, and old animals. Clinical signs of toxicity include teeth grinding and drooling, low grade colic pain, diarrhea and fluid accumulation on the abdomen and legs. Kidney failure and perforation of stomach and intestine ulcers can be deadly. NSAIDs are known to have potential effects on both parturition and the estrous cycle. There may be a delay in the onset of estrus if flunixin is administered during the prostaglandin phase of the estrous cycle.

A NSAID anti-inflammatory for pain, especially of the joints, muscles, fever reduction.
I dose at 1.5 to 2.0 times the human dose once daily.
Not approved, unofficial withdrawal: milk=24 hours, meat=7 days.

Available data of ketoprofen in cattle indicate a short terminal half-life of 30 minutes and a small volume of distribution. Results in lactating goats also indicates a short half-life and a small volume of distribution in tissue. In France, ketoprofen is approved for use in cattle, and recommended meat and milk withdrawal intervals (WDI) for this drug given IV or IM at 3.3 mg/kg, q24h, for 3 days, are 4 and 0 days, respectively. On the basis of this information, FARAD recommends meat and milk WDI of 7 days and 24 hours, respectively, for use of ketoprofen in cattle, sheep, or goats at dosages up to 3.3 mg/kg, q24h, for up to 3 days.


Peter D. Constable, BVSc, MS, PhD, Dip ACVIM - 10th Central Veterinary Conference Proceedings - Coliform mastitis. Ketoprofen at 2 gm, IM, q24h for duration of clinical mastitis significantly improved recovery in field cases of clinical mastitis (placebo controlled, masked study). This is the only study to demonstrate field efficacy, suggesting that ketoprofen should be the NSAID of choice when treating coliform mastitis. The half-life of ketoprofen is short (30 minutes), suggesting that it should be administered more frequently than at 24 hour intervals. The recommended dose in horses is 2.2 mg/kg, IM, q24h. Extrapolating this to the 500 kg cow produces a dose of 1.1 gm, IM, q24h).

A NSAID anti-inflammatory for pain, especially of the joints, muscles, fever reduction.
I dose at double the human dose twice daily.
Ibuprofen relieves pain and lowers fever. At the over-the-counter dosage, ibuprofen does not reduce inflammation.

Pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen in lactating dairy goats - DeGraves FJ, Anderson KL, Aucoin DP. Department of Large Animal Surgery and Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, AL.
(excerpt) - After 50 and 100 mg/kg administered orally, bioavailability was 90.8 and 106%, respectively. Area under the curve increased linearly with dose administered. Adverse effects were not observed in goats given ibuprofen.
PMID: 8498749

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Re: Oral Preparations~copied from Saanendoah.com


When picking an electrolyte (all electrolytes are not created equal) read the labels. You want an electrolyte that contains:
Sodium - 4 to 5 grams per 100-gram pkt Sodium corrects dehydration. (4 to 5% minimum)
Alkalizing agents- can be either bicarbonate, sodium citrate, sodium acetate, or a combination (12 grams, not usually listed but offers 110-160meg/L) Corrects acidosis.
Potassium - 2 to 3 grams per 100-gram pkt. Replaces electrolyte losses.(2 to 3% minimum)
Chloride - 4 to 5 grams. Corrects acidosis.(4 to 5% minimum)
Glycine - 3 to 6 grams. Helps water absorption. (3 to 6% minimum)
Dextrose/Glucose - 60 to 70 grams. An energy source. (60-70 percent minimum)
Fiber - is not a critical ingredient in electrolytes, though it does absorb water and slows down the passage of nutrients through the intestines, reduses loose stools, and helps re-establish microbial fermentation. Products (gelling agents) used include pectins, guar gum, xanthum gum, and pulps like apple and citrus. If an electrolye contains fiber, some of the glucose was sacrificed to make room for the fiber, look for a maximum of 1 to 2 grams of fiber in a 100-gram pkt.
Wait 15 to 20 minutes after feeding milk before you feed an electrolyte with bicarbonate or citrate. Together, these two alkalizing agents prevent rennin and casein from clotting in the stomach, thereby causing rapid passage of nutrients throught the small intestine. Milk replacers don't contain casein, so alkalizing agents won't interfere with them.

Bloat (ruminal tympany) is the entrapment of gases which eventually obstructs the esophagus, creating a closed cavity in the rumen. Bloat is usually caused by a change in diet. Legume forages such a alfalfa and clover and high-protein grain feeds can cause rapid production of fermentation gases (methane, CO2, and nitrogen). The bubbles mix with the ruminal fluids to form a stable foam. The animal is unable to eructate (burp) and dies of asphyxia.

For the treatment of acute forage or frothy bloat of cattle, sheep and goats.
Active Ingredient(s): Vegetable oil, polyglycerol oleate, polyethylene glycol monooleate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, citric acid, ethoxyquin, propylene glycol and propyl gallate.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Adults 100-200 mL Kids 50-100 mL - orally (as a drench) or by direct injection into the rumen with a large gauge needle between the hip bone and rib cage in the left flank areas.
WITHDRAWAL: 96 hours for milk

Poloxalene 25 g per fluid ounce (approx. 30 mL).
For oral use only - not for injection. May be used in lactating animals.
Poloxalene lowers the surface tension of the frothy mass so the bubble film is weakened and can no longer contain the gas. The foam collapses back to the liquid level, unblocking the esophagus so that the animal can orally expel gases.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: THERABLOAT® is a highly concentrated form of poloxalene designed to be diluted with water and administered orally as a drench, or by stomach tube.
For animals up to 500 lb, use 1 fl oz of Drench Concentrate.
For animals over 500 lb, use 2 fl oz of Drench Concentrate.
Add the proper amount of concentrate to one (1) pint of water. Mix well. If a stomach tube is to be used, add the concentrate to one (1) gallon of water.



BETADINE® SOLUTION - excellent for irrigating wounds, cleaning abbesses.

BETADINE® SURGICAL SCRUB - excellent for coating washed hand, or sterile gloved hand when having to check a freshening doe vaginally. For sanitizing skin surface to be surgically treated, as well as for cleansing surfaces which have received wounds of abrasions.

FUROX® ("the yellow spray": Furacin, Topazone) - aerosol spray , excellent for skin abrasions, a must for treatment of newly burned buds after disbudding. FEBRUARY 2002 FDA PROHIBITS NITROFURAN DRUG USE IN FOOD-PRODUCING ANIMALS

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 3% - Mild disinfectant. Useful for irrigating and cleansing abscesses and open wounds before apply antibiotic preparations. An oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroside combines with organic material in wounds subsequently breaking down large molecules and liquefying solid matter. When hydrogen peroxide solution contacts organic materila containing catalase, oxygen is liberated rapidly enought to cause effervensence, whihc provides a mechanical cleansing effect. This action is especially useful in grossly contaminated wounds or open cavities which have areas that are difficult to penetrate, such as jagged wounds with extensive tissue damage. The antiseptic or germicidal action is brief and ends with the completion of oxygen release, evidenced by the subsidence of visable foaming. Hydrogen peroxide is water with extra oxygen attached. The formula for water is H2O, and for hydrogen peroxide is H2O2. Another name for it might be hydrogen dioxide. NEVER INJECT HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.

CAUTION: Hydrogen peroxide is an irritant of the eyes, mucous membranes, and skin. Inhalation of high concentrations of the vapor or mist may cause extreme irritation of the nose and throat. Severe systemic poisoning may cause headache, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, tremors, numbness, convulsions, pulmonary edema, unconsciousness, and shock. Exposure for a short period of time to the mist or spray may cause stinging and tearing of the eyes. Skin contact with liquid hydrogen peroxide causes a temporary whitening or bleaching of the skin; if the skin is not washed promptly, redness and blisters may develop. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide may cause irritation of the upper gastrointestinal tract and severe damage to the esophagus and stomach. (Hathaway G et al. Proctor and Hughes' chemical hazards of the workplace. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1991) Splashes of high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the eyes may cause severe corneal damage. At very low concentrations (1 to 3 percent), instillation of hydrogen peroxide into the eye causes severe pain that later subsides. (Grant W, Toxicology of the eye. Charles C Thomas, 1986)
IODINE 7% - apply liberally to naval cords of newborns. Keep in small container and discard after dipping 3-4 kids (the active ingredient is used up). Betadine, peroxide and milder disinfectants do not provide adequate disinfection for naval cords, use only 7% iodine.
IODINE POVIDONE ("gentle iodine") - for treatment of superficial wounds and lesions, as well as for ringworm fungus.

The contamination rate for blood cultures collected after iodine tincture is significantly lower (2.4Confused than that of povidone-iodine (3.8Confused.
The efficacy of two skin disinfectants were tested in this randomized controlled trial among adult patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Antecubital venipuncture sites were randomly disinfected with povidone-iodine or iodine tincture, and blood cultures were drawn by professional phlebotomists. Scoring of contaminant species was restricted to skin flora. Hospital resource utilization was compared among patients with contaminated blood cultures and those with sterile blood cultures.
Of the 3,851 blood cultures collected during the study, 120 (3.1Confused were contaminated with skin flora. The contamination rate for blood cultures collected after povidone-iodine was 3.8% (74 of 1,947), compared with a rate of 2.4% (46 of 1,904, P = 0.01) after iodine tincture. This study concluded that Iodine tincture is superior to povidone-iodine for venipuncture site antisepsis before blood culture sampling.

SCARLEX- Contains scarlet oil and P-Chloro-M-Xylenol, a powerful germicide/fungicide. Scarlex is my choice for individual treatment of ringworm lesion. (other ringworm/Club Lamb Fungus treatments)

Ringworm/Club Lamb Fungus (Dermatomycoses)
The most common "Ringworm" dermatophyte [fungi] in goats is Trichophyton verrucosum a zoophilic fungus. Infections in humans result from direct contact with infected goats, sheep, cattle. he fungus is usually transmitted from one animal to another by direct contact between animals. Ringworm can also be spread by clippers, brushes, combs, blankets, fence posts, fence wire and the hands of handlers. Once an infected animal comes in contact with equipment, the equipment can remain a source of infection for up to 4 years. more ringworm photos
Incubation period: One to four weeks

Treatment may shorten the healing time but is important mainly to reduce the spread of the disease to other animals. Several disinfectants can be used to treat ringworm. If possibe soak the entire animal and not just the hairless spot.

0.5% chlorohexadine (Nolvasan - 3 oz. per gallon) is very effective but is inactivated by soap.
1:10 dilution of hypochlorite solution (Chlorox) is effective.
1:300 dilution of Captan is effective for some types of ringworm. Not approved for use in food animals, is listed as a carcinogen by the EPA.
.5 to 1% povidol iodine (tamed iodine).
.5% lime-sulfur solution.
I like Scarlex for treating individual lesions. The pink stain only lasts a day or two. Affected animals should be treated daily for 5 days, then weekly for 3 treatments.
Home Remedy - Melt 4 ounces of petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) in hot water bath. Stir in 1.5 grams (1500 mG) of the dewormer thiabendazole (TBZ). Then add 3 mL isopropyl alcohol. Mix well and cool. This results in an approximately 4% TBZ ointment. Apply every other day for 3-5 days. NOTE: TBZ had lost its effectiveness as a dewormer, but still worked very well as an antifungal agent.
Vitamin A injection may speed healing.
Treat the entire animal not just the ringworm spots.
Ringworm fungus can survive for months on brushes, combs, blankets, clippers, fence, fence posts, and soil. Disinfect pens and equipment where infected animals (goats, sheep, cattle) have been (1:10 dilution of hypochlorite) before using it for other animals.
Certain factors make an animal more susceptible to ringworm infection.
Young animals are more easily infected.
Poor nutrition increases the likelihood of ringworm infection.
Animals that have not had ringworm before are more likely to catch it.
Animals kept in the same pen with infected animals are more likely to catch ringworm.
Animals kept in dark, damp, warm, and poorly ventilated places become infected more easily.
The use of clippers, brushes, and blankets on different animals without disinfection will spread this disease.
Goats in contact with infected cattle and sheep can get this disease.
Washing too frequently removes normal skin bacteria, and make these animals more susceptible to ringworm.
Flies spread ringworm.
NEOSPORIN® (Gramicidin; Neomycin; Polymyxin B), POLYSPORIN (Bacitracin Zinc; Polymyxin B Sulfate) -or any triple antibiotic ointment- an antibiotic ointment for quick healing of scratches, scrapes and irritated skin.
TERRAMYCIN EYE OINTMENT - antibiotic (oxytetracycline) eye ointment. For treatment of "Pink eye" (contagious keratoconjunctivitis) apply 3 times daily. Mycoplasma and chlamydia are believed to be the most common causes of pinkeye in goats, both respond to oxytetracycline, neither respond to the penicillins.

Updated August 21, 2002
This has been complied as information only, it is not intended as a means of diagnosing and treating an animal or to replace professional veterinary advice or care for your animals. This information is not intended to be a comprehensive review of any drugs, their uses, side effects, or special considerations. Veterinary consultation is vital when treating sick animals. Responsible decisions concerning treatments and drug safety or effectiveness must be made by each individual and their veterinarian. Never disregard veterinary advice or delay in seeking it as a result of information provided on this site. The administration of any medication should be taken very seriously.Medications given in the wrong circumstance, via the wrong route, or in the wrong combination can hurt or kill. The anecdotal information, experiences and thoughts are my own or those I've personal knowledge of and are not meant to represent the management practices or thinking of goat breeders in general or the veterinary community. This information is presented without guarantees, and the author disclaims all liability in connection with the use of this information. The extra-label use of any product in a food producing animal is illegal without a prescription from a veterinarian the includes the milk and meat withdrawal information (seeELDU Q&A ).
Updated August 21, 2003
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