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Medication : MISC. Injectables: lute, oxy, epi , pain etc~Saanendoah.com

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flunixin meglumine
Rx item - Extra label in goats
NOTE: July 2002 Temporary halt to production of Banamine & Nuflor
Banamine, Nuflor, are among the drugs that are temporarily out of production.
Supplies of Banamine and Nuflor, in the United States will be limited to the stock that distributors have available.

FLUMEGLUIMINE - other generic brands

All contain fluxixin meglumine, 50mg/ml
Analgesic - Antispasmotic - Antipyretic - with antiendotoxic properties . Additionally, it increases hemodynamic flow during septic shock. A powerful analgesic. NSAIDs are more effective as analgesics when inflammation is a part of the pain process, also more effective when given prior to the onset of the inflammatory processes or insult. NSAIDs do not resolve inflammation, but prevent its on-going occurrence.
DOSE: 1/4-1/2 ml SC (SQ) (IM, IV) per 50 lbs (1mg/kg) either divided and given twice daily or as a single dose every 24 hours. May dilute with Vit. B12 inj. to reduce pain on IM or SQ injection. Avoid rapid intravenous administration.
DOSE: low dose for anti-endotoxic activity - one quarter the label dose administered three to four times a day, has anti-endotoxic effects without masking signs of pain or causing toxicity.
Banamine also comes is paste form, and crumbles.
Long term use is not recommended (gastrointestinal and renal toxicity - gastrointestinal ulceration).
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Gastric ulcers, concurrent kidney disease, untreated dehydration, other NSAID use.
ADVERSE EFFECTS include CNS stimulation (may or may not occur), ataxia, hyperventilation, and muscle weakness. Loss of appetite, depression, and gastrointestinal tract ulcers at high doses or prolonged use.
Intramuscular injections of flunixin have been incriminated in cases of fatal clostridial myositis (bacterial infection of the muscle) in horses. When injected into muscle, the drug's formulation causes slight tissue damage and an anaerobic (without oxygen) environment. On rare occasions, a clostridial organism spore is picked up as the needle passes through the horse's haircoat and is injected into the tissue. In the anaerobic environment, the spore becomes activated and proliferates, releasing toxins and causing massive muscle damage. If not treated promptly and aggressively, clostridial myositis is rapidly fatal.
WITHDRAWAL: Extra label in goats - Goats: at 0.5-1.0 mg/lb IV or IM once daily MEAT: 14 days MILK: 4 days(SOURCE - 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP).
STORAGE: Store between 36 and 86 degrees
In the US Banamine (Banamine® brand of flunixin meglumine only) was approved (mid '9Cool for non-lactating and beef cattle, with a withdrawal time of 4 days following recommended dose rates of 50-100mg per 100 pounds (1-2 ml per 100 lbs) for not more than 3 days. Not approved for dairy cattle in the US. The "unoffical" witholding/withdrawal time for milk is 72 hours

Keep in mind that fever itself is an adaptive reponse. It increases wbc motility, stimulates interferon production and activates T cells. It also inhibits the growth of many microrganisms. Low to moderate temps in an animal just "off" but still feeling well enough to eat and drink, etc. sometimes are best left alone.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug, it also reduces temperature and is a pain killer.
Effects last 12-24 hrs, often used at 12 hour intervals for acute problems.
It also has some anti-endotoxic activity when used as part of treatment for toxin producing infections (mycoplasmosis, pastreurellosis, etc).
Used in respiratory infections to combat attendant inflammation of the lungs (releaves coughing and dyspnea and areas of consolidation in the lungs). Helps control respiratory inflammation so the animal feel better and eat better.
More expensive than some of the other analgesic medications, but well worth using in a debilitated animal as it allows for fast reduction of symptoms and thus return to eating, which helps greatly to speed up recuperation while other medical therapy is taking effect [i.e.: antibiotics].

COLISEPTICEMIA: In calves, experimental IV fluxinxin meglumine prior to infusion of endotoxin has been found to lessen many of the adverse cardiopulmonary, hematologic and metabolic effects. It is also helpful in the on going endotoxemia from naturally occurring colisepticemia. A loading dose of 0.75 mg/lb (2.2mg/kg), then 0.5mg/lb (1mg/kg), IV repeated three times daily. A single dose of dexamethasone 1mg/lb (2 mg/kg) may also be beneficial. glucocorticoid(dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid) help block endotoxin-induced metabolic reactions that generates prostacyclinand thromboxne, metabolitesresponsible for most adverse biological effects of endotoxin. The combination of fluxinxin meglumine (Banamine) and dexamethasone have been shown experimentally to be superior to either treatment alone. NOTE: For information only. Both the loading and subsequent doses are very high, and should never be used outside the supervision of a veterinarian .
Toxicity: ALL NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti - Inflammatory Drugs) work by blocking prostaglandins (see above) - chemicals that cause the symptoms of pain and inflammation. Unfortunately, there are also "good" prostaglandins that maintain blood flow to the kidneys (blood vessels constrict w/possible tissue necrosis in the kidney) and the lining of the stomach and intestines (reduction in blood flow and protective mucus production in the gastrointestinal tract) . All NSAID drugs have the potential to cause kidney damage and ulcers in the stomach and intestines. The risk of toxicity is greater in the very young, and old animals. Clinical signs of toxicity include teeth grinding and drooling, low grade colic pain, diarrhea and fluid accumulation on the abdomen and legs. Kidney failure and perforation of stomach and intestine ulcers can be deadly.
NSAIDs are known to have potential effects on both parturition and the estrous cycle. There may be a delay in the onset of estrus if flunixin is administered during the prostaglandin phase of the estrous cycle.
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Re: MISC. Injectables: lute, oxy, epi , pain etc~Saanendoah.com

For treatment of anaphylaxis and in cardiac resuscitation.
DOSES: Ruminants: 0.5 - 1.0ml/100 lbs body weight of the 1:1000 SC (SQ) or IM: DILUTE to 1:10,000 if using IV; may be repeated at 15 minute internals.
NOTE: be certain when preparing injection that you do not confuse 1:10 (1mg/ml) with 1:10,000 (0.1mg/ml) concentrations. To convert a 1:1000 solution to a 1:10,000 solution for IV or intratracheal use, dilute each ml with 9 ml of normal saline for injection.
Epinephrine should be stored in tight containers and protected from light. It will darken (oxidation) upon exposure to light and air. Do not use the injection if it is pink, brown, or contains a precipitate.
ANAPHYLACTIC REACTION [SEVERE, IMMEDIATE ALLERGIC OR SHOCK REACTION]. The animal suddenly collapses after a shot or shock situation. Epinephrine (sometimes known as adrenaline) must be administered immediately.


aminopropazine fumarate
Rx item - Extra label in goats
Smooth muscle relaxant (a phenothiazine derivative) that produces little CNS effect. Used to decrease excessive smooth muscle contraction in spasmodic colic. Also used for urethral spasms secondary to urolithiasis in dogs in cats.
Administer by slow IV or IM.


Was RX item. No longer available in the US.
DOSE: 2.5ml per 50lbs SC (SQ)/IM every 10-12 hours.
NOTE: Dipyrone products were withdrawn from the market (late '96).
A NSAID, like Banamine, is a temperature reducer, anti-inflammatory, both the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of dipyrone are questionable (mild pain killer and anti-inflammatory at best).
Can be toxic to the liver and kidneys (hepatotoxic/nephrotoxic). May cause hypothermia.


.Rx item
A corticosteroid - the natural function of corticosteroids is to protect the supply of blood glucose critical for normal brain function).

A synthetic analogue of prednisolone (more potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic action and diversified hormonal and metabolic effects). Corticosteroid therapy is directed at modifying the body's response to inflammation; it is not directed at treating the underlying disease process.
Most common strength: 2mg/mL of dexamethasone, but there is a 4mg/mL solution available.
Brand names: Azium® (Schering-Plough) - Generic Dexamethasone
CAUTION: Do not use in pregnant does, it can cause them to abort.
USES AND DOSE RATES: use the smallest dose that achieves the desired effect in order to limit adverse side effects. In general, anti-inflammatory doses are 10 times the physiological levels, doses to suppress the immune system are twice the anti-inflammatory dose, and doses to treat shock are 5 to 10 times the immunosuppressive dose.
In combination with fluxinxin meglumine to treat E-colisepticemia.
Used as an antiinflammatory it prevents the development of the inflammatory response. As an anti-inflammatory and pain reliever for joint and bone injuries (dose rate: 1/2 to 1ml/20 lbs).
For head injuries or "brain burn" following too vigorous disbudding (1-2mg/20 lbs).
For shock (1-2mg/20 lbs). To : 1. Increase capillary blood flow (improved circulation), 2. Decrease absorption of endotoxins, 3. Decrease production of Myocardial Depressant Factor 4. Decrease organ damage.
Following stroke or other cerebral vascular accidents (1-2mg/20 lbs).
Combined with thiamine (B1) to help reverse brain swelling associated with polioencephalomalacia .
Ketosis (4-8ml). Glucocorticoid reaction. The gluconeogenic effects of dexamethasone, when administered intramuscularly, are generally noted within the first 6-12 hours (faster via IV route). Blood sugar levels rise to normal levels within 12-24 hours. Acetone bodies are reduced to normal concentrations usually within 24 hours. The physical attitude of animals brightens and appetite improves, usually within 12 hours. Milk production, which is suppressed as a compensatory reaction in this condition, begins to increase. The recovery process usually takes from three to seven days.
Allergic reactions to insect bites or other allergins (1/2 to 1ml/20 lbs). The anti-inflammatory effect of 0.75 mg of dexamethasone approximately corresponds to 5 mg of prednisolone or 20 mg of hydrocortisone.
As supportive therapy in mastitis, metritis, traumatic gastritis and pyelonephritis, while appropriate primary therapy is administered. In these cases, the corticosteroid combats accompanying stress and enhances the feeling of general well-being.
As supportive therapy while an animal is recuperating from severe debilitation and therefore eats better during the very critical period of early recuperation (dose rate: 1-2 mg/20 lbs 5-8ml to an adult doe, repeat in 12-24 hours ).
As supportive therapy in inflammatory conditions, such as arthritic conditions, snake bite, acute mastitis, shipping fever, pneumonia, laminitis and retained placenta.
To induce labor (parturation) before 144 days. Dex is the drug of choice for increasing the chance of live kids when inducing labor/paturation before 144 days. Dex does NOT bypass the stages involved in fetal lung maturation (production of surfactant) like prostaglandins (i.e. Lutalyse) do. Slower to work than oristagkandins with patruition taking 48 to 96 hours.
In conjunction with prostaglandins when inducing labor (parturation) to hasten maturation of preterm or possible preterm fetal organs and tissues, particularly the lungs (to reduce respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ) , but also the cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. Dexamethasone and betamethasone are the preferred corticosteroids for antenatal therapy in human medicine. These two compounds are identical in biological activity and readily cross the placenta in their biologically active forms. They are devoid of mineralocorticoid activity, relatively weak in immunosuppressive activity, and exert longer duration of action than cortisol and methylprednisolone.
Immune-suppression (treatment of conditions where the immune system is destructively hyperactive. Higher doses are required to actually suppress the immune system.
Blood Calcium Reduction (in medical conditions where blood calcium is dangerously high treatment is needed to reduce levels to normal)
May be used in animals with acute or chronic bacterial infections providing that the infections are controlled with appropriate antibiotics or chemotherapeutic agents.
CAUTIONS: Because of the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroids, signs of infection may be masked. Overdosage of some glucocorticoids may result in sodium retention, fluid retention, potassium loss and weight gain.
DO NOT USE in combination with medications of the NSAID class (ie, Banamine (flunixin
meglumine), aspirin, phenylbutazone (bute) [note: Bute may reduce the effects of corticosteroids], etc.) the combination of these medications could lead to bleeding in the stomach or intestine.
CONTRAINDICATIONS : Except for emergency therapy, do not use in animals with chronic nephritis (kidney disease). The existence of congestive heart failure, diabetes and osteoporosis are relative contraindications. Do not use in viral infections during the viremic stage.
WITHDRAWAL : Meat none. Milk 72 hours.
STORAGE : Store between 2-30°C (36-86°F).

Dexamethasone is an anadrenal corticosteroid, a member of the glucocorticoid class of hormones. A steroid - unlike anabolic steroids used in sports medicine, these are "catabolic" steroids. Instead of building the body up, they are designed to break down stored resources (fats, sugars and proteins) so that they may be used as fuels in times of stress. Cortisone is a related hormone. Glucocorticoids hormones are produced naturally by the adrenal glands. Dexamethasone does not have activity in the kidney leading to the conservation of salt. This means that the classical side effects of steriod use (excessive thirst and excessive urination) are less pronounced with this steroid than with others.
Experimental animal studies: have revealed that dexamethasone possesses greater anti-inflammatory activity than many steroids. Veterinary clinical evidence indicates that dexamethasone has approximately 20 times the anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone and 70 to 80 times that of hydrocortisone.

Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Solu-Medrol®)
Prednisolone sodium succinate (Solu-Delta-Cortef®)
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Azium SP®)
Dexamethasone (Azium®)
Flumethasone (Flucort®)
Methylprednisolone acetate (Depo-Medrol®)
Triamcinolone acetonide (Vetalog®)
Isoflupredone acetate (Predef 2X®)
Betamethasone dipropionate (Betasone®)

PHARMACOLOGY: Like other glucocorticoids, dexamethasone acts on the metabolism (in particular on the carbohydrates) and it inhibits the adrenal cortex through feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary; it also has strong anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive action.

Dexamethasone use is likely to change liver enzyme blood testing and interfere with testing for thyroid diseases.

Dexamethasone is approximately 10 times stronger than prednisone/prednisolone.

Its use requires certain precautions: If used for more than one dose it must be used with an antibiotic as it surpresses the body's natural immunity while being used, and leaves the animal open to infection.
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Re: MISC. Injectables: lute, oxy, epi , pain etc~Saanendoah.com

Isoflupredone acetate 2mg/mL
Rx item
.Like other corticosteroids (see dexamethasone above) it should not be used in pregnant does, it can cause premature labor.
A synthetic corticosteriod. Used for treating ketosis, and in conjunction with other medications for treating allergic reactions and part of a combo treatment for shock.
Dexamethasone is stronger and the better choice for deliberate induction of labor. X


Rx item
(20 USP units pre mL)
DOSE: 10-20 units IM (0.5-1 ml) given within 24 hrs. after freshening, is helpful in expelling retained afterbirth.
DOSE: To control post-extraction cervical and uterine bleeding after internal manipulations (e.g. Fetotomy, etc), 5-10 units IV, may repeat SC (SQ) in 2 hours.
It is used in minute amounts [1/10 to 3/10 mL for milk letdown:] to stimulate milk letdown.Dairy farmers often manage mastitis by administering small amounts of oxytocin and complete milk-out several times a day instead of antibiotic treatment for staph mastitis.
STORAGE : Keep in a refrigerator at 36°-46°F (2.2°-7.8°C). Do not freeze. Avoid excessive exposure to heat.
When used to augment uterine contractions during labor you must be absolutely certain that the doe is COMPLETELY DILATED AND THERE IS A NORMAL PRESENTATION, as to cause hard contractions when the fetus is not presented correctly or the cervical Os is not open could do irreparable harm to the doe!!


Prostaglandins are not endocrine drugs, but many are used as oxytocics or abortifacients or to induce estrus.
In the US the most commonly used in goats are Dinoprost (Lutalyse®) and Clorprostenol (Estrumate®)
Lutalyse & Estrumate

Rx item
Lutalyse® (2mg/ml), Prostin F2 Alpha®" both by Upjohn & ProstaMate, Phoenix Scientific. - Naturally-occurring PGF2a as the tromethamine salt. Dinoprost tromethamine 5mg/ml. Prostaglandin F2 Alpha 5mg/ml.
Estrumate (Haver) cloprostenol - synthetic analogs of PGF2a. Cloprostenol (cloprostenol sodium) 500 mcg / 2 mL
Do not administer intravenously (I.V.)
Induce heat: 1/2 to 1mL IM to bring an ovulating adult doe into standing heat [65-75 hours after injection she will be ready to breed.
To synchronize does (8mg/0.75mL day 4 of cycle & again in11 days).
As an abortifacient (5-10mg/1-2mL).
Induce labor: 1/2 to 2.0 mL to bring a doe into active labor (induce parturition), with delivery in 24-57 hours - or it's reported that a higher dose (up to 5mL) will yield a more predictable interval from injection to delivery (32 hours). This with careful consideration can be used as a management tool, to terminate accidental pregnancies and to allow the owner to be on hand during freshening, as well as to aid in choosing a convenient time for both owner and buck's owner to breed the does, and, not infrequently, to get an otherwise unbreedable doe pregnant. Not the drug of choice for induction of paturition before day 144 of gestation for delivery of live kids. Prostaglandins bypass the steps necessary to the production of fetal lung surfactant. Before day 144, use dexamethasone.
As part of a treatment regime for breeding problem (dose varies w/tx regime used).
Also used to terminate an unwanted conception.
Used post kidding to control excessive uterine bleeding.
NOTE: Lower doses produce luteolysis (regression of the corpus luteum) in Angora goats.
STORAGE : Store at controlled room temperature 20° to 25° C (68° to 77° F)
WARNING: Pregnant women, asthmatics or other persons with bronchial disease should handle this product with extreme caution. Dinoprost tromethamine is readily absorbed through the skin and can cause abortion and/or bronchiospasms..Any accidental exposure to skin should be washed off immediately.
Using a certain protocol it is used in conjunction with GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) hormones (Cystroelin®, Fertagyl®, Factrel® - Rx) to correct certain breeding problems (i.e. cystic ovary disease).
these GnRH products are all identical and the original ingredients come from the same parent company
Naturally-occurring PGF2a as the tromethamine salt (Lutalyse, Upjohn; ProstaMate, Phoenix Scientific)


(Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, GnRH)
Gonadorelin increases the synthesis and release of FSH and LH.
It is used in the treatment of follicular cysts and may also be used to increase fertility in cows with previously retained placenta.
PRODUCT RECALL: January 2000
PRODUCT Veterinary Chorionic Gonadotropin for Injection, distributed under the labels of Steris Laboratories and The Butler Company (10,000 units per sterile 10 ml multiple dose monovial)
CODE Steris - 97H670, 97J190, 97J410, 97K710, 98A310, 98B560 Butler - 97J410 and 97J150
MANUFACTURER Steris Laboratories, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona.
97H670 9-99 6,375
97J190 9-99 5,925
97J410 9-99 16,077
97J510 11-99 3,995
97K710 10-99 10,400
98A310 1-00 14,995
98B560 2-00 10,975
* (Final Yield Is Quantity Yielded After Inspection, Samples Pulled, And Rejects Discarded)



CIDR Intravaginal Inserts -Product information on Pharmacia's progesterone estrus control drug for dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and goats.

(veterinary - DOPRAM V INJ 20MG/ML)
Rx item
Doxapram Hydrochloride
Respiratory and cerebral stimulant.
Dose & route of administration:
Placing 10 to 20 drops of the solution under the tongue of the kid will produce an effect within seconds in many cases.
Inject at 5-10mg/kg IV, IM, or SQ.
Avoid overdosing because it will cause respiratory alkalosis due to depletion of CO2 in the blood.
RESPIROT (Crotetamidum 75 mg, Cropropamidum 75 mg per 1 ml.) Rx item - is another respiratory stimulant administered buccal (oral) or nasally at 6 - 18 drops buccal or nasal (1 ml corresponds to about 36 drops). Avoid overdosing because it will cause respiratory alkalosis due to depletion of CO2 in the blood.
Used to intiate or stimulate respirations following dystocia or cesarean section in newborns. A respiratory simulant with a lower convulsive threshold than other analeptic agents.
D oxapram (Dopram) is a respiratory stimulant and not a reversal agent per se; however, it has been used to partially antagonize the respiratory depression produced by barbiturate anesthesia.
This effect in animals is dependent upon an intact respiratory center and is mediated by increased neuromuscular drive in a dose dependent fashion.
Doxapram also has effects on the cardiovascular system including an increase in stroke volume and an increase in blood pressure. In higher dosages, there is non-specific stimulation of the central nervous system which may lead to convulsions. General stimulation of the central nervous system may occur even within the therapeutic range.


See also
SQ(SC) Fluid Therapy

Isotonic Normal Saline (NS)
Used to replace body fluids
0.9% Sodium chloride / NaCl 0.9% (NS)
Lactated Ringer's (LR)

More concentrated than plasma
Used to draw water from tissue

Less concentrated than plasma
Used to rehydrate tissue
5% Dextrose in Water (D5W)


Usually an Rx item but you can occasionaly find OTC
To correct fluid and electrolyte deficits and mild acidosis. Lactated Ringer's solution contains lactate, which is converted by the liver to bicarbonate. Animals with severe liver pathology may fail to convert lactate to bicarbonate. Do not use in the treatment of lactic acidosis. Lactic acidosis occurs due to the build up of lactic acid. Adding lactated ringers will increase the lactic acid levels. Use Normal Saline 0.9% SC (sodium chloride) to rehydrate in the case of lactic acidosis.
Use in emergency to rehydrate animal via SC (SQ) injection or drip.
Use in caution in animals with liver disease or anorexia
May induce low sodium with multiple infusions
Peritoneal [IP] injection of fluids is not recommended in goats (used most often in piglets, lambs, and kittens).
1000ml for a dehydrated adult doe (comes in 250/500/1000ML bags).
Can add not more than 50ml of 50% dextrose to the 1000ml bag/vial.
CLASS: 1. Isotonic crystalloid volume expander. 2. Physiologic electrolyte solution.
PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS: Expands circulating blood volume by approximating the fluid and electrolyte composition of the blood.
Lactate is metabolized by the liver and converted to bicarbonate, which aids in the correction of mild acidosis.
Isotonic solution of 273 mOsm/L.
The pH range is 6.0 - 7.5.
Caloric Value (per L) 9
Active Ingredient(s): Each 100 mL of sterile aqueous solution contains:

Sodium chloride 600 mg
Sodium lactate 310 mg
Potassium chloride 30 mg
Calcium chloride - 2H2O 20 mg
Water for injection q.s.
Milliequivalents per liter:

Sodium 130 mEq/L
Potassium 4.0 mEq/L
Calcium 2.7 mEq/L
Total osmolar concentration 276 mOsm/L

Warm solution to body temperature and administer 1 to 2 mL/lb of body weight, or as determined by condition of animal, at a rate of 10 to 30 mL per minute under strict asepsis. May be repeated as necessary.

Precaution(s): Store at controlled room temperature between 2 º-30 ºC (36 º-86 ºF).

Contains no preservatives. Partial bags maybe be refrigerated for 1-3 days, otherwise use entire contents when first opened.


Usually an Rx item but you can occasionaly find OTC
All-purpose replacement fluid used to correct fluid and electrolyte deficits and metabolic acidosis.
A good choice for maintenance solution (lower in sodium and higher in potassium than rehydration fluids).


NORMOSOL-R (electrolytes & water)
pH 6.6 (also Normosol-R 7.4) - Caloric Value (per L) = 18

Ingredient Strength


NORMOSOL-R (electrolytes & 5% dextrose)
IONOSOL MB (electrolytes & 5% dextrose)
IONOSOL B (electrolytes & 5% dextrose)
IONOSOL T (electrolytes & 5% dextrose)
With dextrose solutions some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety.

DEXTROSE FLUIDS provide calories for energy, sparing body protein and preventing ketosis, which occurs when the body burns fat. They also make it easier for potassium to move from the extracellular to the intracellular compartment. Dextrose fluids flush the kidneys with water, helping them excrete solutes, and improve liver function (glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen).

Usually an Rx item but you can occasionaly find OTC
Warm to room temperature and administer approximately 40 ml/10 lbs. Subcutaneously (under the skin) twice daily.
Combo of dextrose and electrolytes gives fast energy to weak or dehydrated kids (see SQ fluids for caution notes on administration of dextrose SQ). Increases the circulating volume initialy. However, the glucose molecules cross the membranes of the body easily, taking water with them, and the net effect is almost negligible on circulatory volume.
To correct hypoglycemia (low blood sugar); supply water; treat high potassium.
pH 5.0
Caloric Value (per Liter) = 170
For intramuscular use, dilute to 5% solution by taking 1 part 50% dextrose and 9 parts sterile saline. May also be given orally.


Dextrose 5 gm/ 100 mL
Hypotonic sugar solution
Contains only dextrose, no electrolytes
To maintain water balance and supply calories necessary for cell metabolism
Not the solution of choice in shock
Causes red cell clumping (cannot be given with blood).
Incompatible with some medications
May cause water intoxication, low sodium, or high glucose
Do not use SC (SQ)


Dextrose 50 gm/ 100 mL
Hypotonic sugar solution
Do not administer via I.M. injection, may cause tissue necrosis.

Contains only sodium and chloride
Usually an Rx item but you can occasionaly find OTC
Normal Saline 0.9% SC (sodium chloride 4.5 gm / 500 mL)
pH 5.4
Caloric Value (per L) = None
To correct deficits of sodium and chloride and treat metabolic alkalosis (increased alkalinity of the blood and tissues - ACIDOSIS, KETOSIS).
Normal Saline (0.9 SC) may be used interchangeably with Ringer's Lactate (RL) for intravenous or SC (SQ) infusion .
A 250ml bottle should be kept on hand (very inexpensive) to dilute other preparations for use in infusions, etc.
Can also be used to rehydrate a mildly dehydrated animal, particularly a kid. Inject SC (SQ) or IV drip, peritoneal [IP] injection of fluid not usually recommended in goats (used most often in piglets, lambs and kittens).
May cause diuresis, high sodium and acid-base imbalance.


Updated info on Sub-Q (SQ, SC) use of Ca coming soon.
CALCIUM GLUCONATE 10% (calcium gluconate 100mg/mL) solution- IV 5-15 mg/ml slowly to effect over 10 minute period. Monitor heart rate, stop treatment if bradycardia develops. Calcium chloride 10% solution is effective but extremely caustic if given extravascularly, but is three times more potent so use one-third 0.15-0.5 ml/kg.
CALCIUM GLUCONATE 23% (calcium borogluconate 23%)solution - 23% w/v (provides 10.71 g of calcium* per 500 mL) - 23 grams of Ca Cluconate (2.14 grams Ca) per 100ml.

Warm to room temperature and administered slowly.

Store at a controlled room temperature between 59 º-86 ºF (15 º-30 ºC).
Contents should be used upon entering, as the product does not contain preservatives.
Do not use if the solution is cloudy or contains a precipitate.

See: Differentiating Hypocalcemia from Milk Fever, Pregnancy Toxemia, Paturient Paresis and Ketosis By Sue Reith

Updated May 2003
This has been complied as information only, it is not intended as a means of diagnosing and treating an animal or to replace professional veterinary advice or care for your animals. This information is not intended to be a comprehensive review of any drugs, their uses, side effects, or special considerations. Veterinary consultation is vital when treating sick animals. Responsible decisions concerning treatments and drug safety or effectiveness must be made by each individual and their veterinarian. Never disregard veterinary advice or delay in seeking it as a result of information provided on this site. The administration of any medication should be taken very seriously.Medications given in the wrong circumstance, via the wrong route, or in the wrong combination can hurt or kill. The anecdotal information, experiences and thoughts are my own or those I've personal knowledge of and are not meant to represent the management practices or thinking of goat breeders in general or the veterinary community. This information is presented without guarantees, and the author disclaims all liability in connection with the use of this information. The extra-label use of any product in a food producing animal is illegal without a prescription from a veterinarian the includes the milk and meat withdrawal information (seeELDU Q&A ).
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