MISC. INJECTABLES: BANAMINE® - CITATRON® flunixin meglumine Rx item - Extra label in goats NOTE: July 2002 Temporary halt to production of Banamine & Nuflor Banamine, Nuflor, are among the drugs that are temporarily out of production. Supplies of Banamine and Nuflor, in the United States will be limited to the stock that distributors have available. CRONYXIN FLUMEGLUIMINE - other generic brands All contain fluxixin meglumine, 50mg/ml Analgesic - Antispasmotic - Antipyretic - with antiendotoxic properties . Additionally, it increases hemodynamic flow during septic shock. A powerful analgesic. NSAIDs are more effective as analgesics when inflammation is a part of the pain process, also more effective when given prior to the onset of the inflammatory processes or insult. NSAIDs do not resolve inflammation, but prevent its on-going occurrence. DOSE: 1/4-1/2 ml SC (SQ) (IM, IV) per 50 lbs (1mg/kg) either divided and given twice daily or as a single dose every 24 hours. May dilute with Vit. B12 inj. to reduce pain on IM or SQ injection. Avoid rapid intravenous administration. DOSE: low dose for anti-endotoxic activity - one quarter the label dose administered three to four times a day, has anti-endotoxic effects without masking signs of pain or causing toxicity. Banamine also comes is paste form, and crumbles. Long term use is not recommended (gastrointestinal and renal toxicity - gastrointestinal ulceration). CONTRAINDICATIONS: Gastric ulcers, concurrent kidney disease, untreated dehydration, other NSAID use. ADVERSE EFFECTS include CNS stimulation (may or may not occur), ataxia, hyperventilation, and muscle weakness. Loss of appetite, depression, and gastrointestinal tract ulcers at high doses or prolonged use. Intramuscular injections of flunixin have been incriminated in cases of fatal clostridial myositis (bacterial infection of the muscle) in horses. When injected into muscle, the drug's formulation causes slight tissue damage and an anaerobic (without oxygen) environment. On rare occasions, a clostridial organism spore is picked up as the needle passes through the horse's haircoat and is injected into the tissue. In the anaerobic environment, the spore becomes activated and proliferates, releasing toxins and causing massive muscle damage. If not treated promptly and aggressively, clostridial myositis is rapidly fatal. WITHDRAWAL: Extra label in goats - Goats: at 0.5-1.0 mg/lb IV or IM once daily MEAT: 14 days MILK: 4 days(SOURCE - 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP). STORAGE: Store between 36 and 86 degrees In the US Banamine (Banamine® brand of flunixin meglumine only) was approved (mid '9Cool for non-lactating and beef cattle, with a withdrawal time of 4 days following recommended dose rates of 50-100mg per 100 pounds (1-2 ml per 100 lbs) for not more than 3 days. Not approved for dairy cattle in the US. The "unoffical" witholding/withdrawal time for milk is 72 hours Keep in mind that fever itself is an adaptive reponse. It increases wbc motility, stimulates interferon production and activates T cells. It also inhibits the growth of many microrganisms. Low to moderate temps in an animal just "off" but still feeling well enough to eat and drink, etc. sometimes are best left alone. A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug, it also reduces temperature and is a pain killer. Effects last 12-24 hrs, often used at 12 hour intervals for acute problems. It also has some anti-endotoxic activity when used as part of treatment for toxin producing infections (mycoplasmosis, pastreurellosis, etc). Used in respiratory infections to combat attendant inflammation of the lungs (releaves coughing and dyspnea and areas of consolidation in the lungs). Helps control respiratory inflammation so the animal feel better and eat better. More expensive than some of the other analgesic medications, but well worth using in a debilitated animal as it allows for fast reduction of symptoms and thus return to eating, which helps greatly to speed up recuperation while other medical therapy is taking effect [i.e.: antibiotics]. COLISEPTICEMIA: In calves, experimental IV fluxinxin meglumine prior to infusion of endotoxin has been found to lessen many of the adverse cardiopulmonary, hematologic and metabolic effects. It is also helpful in the on going endotoxemia from naturally occurring colisepticemia. A loading dose of 0.75 mg/lb (2.2mg/kg), then 0.5mg/lb (1mg/kg), IV repeated three times daily. A single dose of dexamethasone 1mg/lb (2 mg/kg) may also be beneficial. glucocorticoid(dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid) help block endotoxin-induced metabolic reactions that generates prostacyclinand thromboxne, metabolitesresponsible for most adverse biological effects of endotoxin. The combination of fluxinxin meglumine (Banamine) and dexamethasone have been shown experimentally to be superior to either treatment alone. NOTE: For information only. Both the loading and subsequent doses are very high, and should never be used outside the supervision of a veterinarian . Toxicity: ALL NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti - Inflammatory Drugs) work by blocking prostaglandins (see above) - chemicals that cause the symptoms of pain and inflammation. Unfortunately, there are also "good" prostaglandins that maintain blood flow to the kidneys (blood vessels constrict w/possible tissue necrosis in the kidney) and the lining of the stomach and intestines (reduction in blood flow and protective mucus production in the gastrointestinal tract) . All NSAID drugs have the potential to cause kidney damage and ulcers in the stomach and intestines. The risk of toxicity is greater in the very young, and old animals. Clinical signs of toxicity include teeth grinding and drooling, low grade colic pain, diarrhea and fluid accumulation on the abdomen and legs. Kidney failure and perforation of stomach and intestine ulcers can be deadly. NSAIDs are known to have potential effects on both parturition and the estrous cycle. There may be a delay in the onset of estrus if flunixin is administered during the prostaglandin phase of the estrous cycle.