Medication : Antibiotics~Saanendoah.com

Discussion in 'Health & Wellness' started by Sondra, Oct 26, 2007.

  1. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    INJECTABLE ANTIBIOTICS:
    Withdrawal information is intended for U.S. residents only

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    OXYTETRACYCLINE
    Extra label in goats
    TERRAMYCIN

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    LA-200® (Liquamycin LA-200) Not long acting when administered IV
    Approved for use in lactating dairy cattle (7/9Cool
    Bio-Mycin 200 ® [FOI] Not long acting when administered IV
    Approved for use in lactating dairy cattle (2002)
    Liquamycin 200® Not long acting when administered IV
    Duramycin 72-200; Maxim-200; OT 200; Oxy-Tet 200; Agrimycin 200; OxyBiotic 200; OxyCure 200; Oxy-Mycin 200; Oxyshot; Oxy-Tet 200; Pennox 200 None are long acting when administered IV
    All contain 200mg of oxytetracycline per mL
    All are labeled for SC (SQ) injection.
    BACTERIOSTATIC
    Interferes with bacterial protein synthesis
    Tylan 200 is NOT the same medication


    NOTE: LA formulations have a viscosity excipient intended to prolong therapeutic serum antibiotic concentrations. These products are believed to differ from other oxytetracycline injection products only in the rate of absorption from intramuscular injection. Some studies using oxytetracycline products with 2-pyrrolidone viscosity excipient have failed to show that the duration of action is significantly prolonged over that of the conventional formulation after intramuscular injection, when they are administered at the same dose. Product viscosity excipients: Biomycin 200 and Oxy-Tet 200 contain polyethylene glycol. Duramycin 72-200, Liquamycin LA-200, Maxim-200; and Pennox 200 contain 2-pyrrolidone. Oxyshot contains N-methylpyrrolidone.

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    Tetracyclines are widely distributed to the heart, kidney, lungs, muscle, pleural fluid, bronchial secretions, sputum, bile, saliva, synovial (joint) fluid, and ocular fluids.
    DOSE #1 : 4.5ml per 100 lbs. (9mg/lb) SC (SQ) every 36-48 hours; mfg. label states a dose schedule of 72 hours but blood levels are very low after 48 hrs. Not long acting when administered IV .
    DOSE #2 : C an also be dosed at 3ml per 100 lbs. (6 mg/lb) once daily.
    Effective blood levels are achieved in 2-4 hours. The serum concentration peak occurs in plasma by 4 hours
    CAUTION : Rapid IV administration of tetracyclines can result in cardiovascular dysfunction and collapse. Administer IV slowly over 2 to 3 minutes, and/or dilute in fluids ( water for injection or physiological saline is recommended - dilute at 5ml diluent per 1ml medication (discard any unused solution).
    NOTE : Products that contain povidone are labeled for intramuscular use only. Products without povidone (generally contain propylene glycol) are labeled for intramuscular or intravenous use.
    CAUTION : In neonates that have not yet developed full renal function, excretion may occur more slowly than in a mature animal.
    CAUTION : Danger of nephrotoxicosis (kidney toxicity) with high doses or use of outdated tetracyclines

    STORAGE/EXPIRATION : As they age, tetracyclines tend to be degraded and become toxic particularly to the kidneys.

    WITHDRAWAL:
    LA-200 Approved for use in lactating dairy cattle (7/9Cool
    Bio-Mycin 200 Approved for use in lactating dairy cattle (2002).
    MILK : Extra label in goats . Goats: 6 days given SQ at 9mg/lb every 48 hours ( SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP).
    Cattle - Given IM, IV or SC (SQ): Recommendations have been published by FARAD regarding the extralabel use of tetracyclines in small ruminants. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that sheep and goats eliminate oxytet faster then cattle following IV and IM use, cattle withdrawal times should be adequate. Recommended milk witholding time is 96 hours following the last treatment. Following prolonged or high dose treatment with oxytetracycline a milk discard time of 144 hours (6 days) is recommended. 144 hours (6 days) is the recommended withdrawal for oxytetracycline infused directly into the udder (426 mg on three occasions 24 hours apart).
    MEAT : Extra label in goats . Goats: 28 days given SQ at 9mg/lb SC every 48 hours ( SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP). Cattle - Given IM, IV or SC (SQ): 28 day withdrawal.
    J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2002 Feb;25(1):25-32 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut
    Serum pharmacokinetics and tissue and milk residues of oxytetracycline in goats following a single intramuscular injection of a long-acting preparation and milk residues following a single subcutaneous injection.
    Payne MA, Babish JG, Bulgin M, Lane M, Wetzlich S, Craigmill AL.
    Environmental Toxicology Extension, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588, USA. mpayne@ucdavis.edu
    Separate groups of goats were used to determine drug depletion patterns in serum (n=10), tissue (n=20) and milk (n=Cool following a single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 20 mg/kg of a long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) formulation (Liquamycin LA-200). Milk residues were also determined following a subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of the same product at the same dose. Serum samples were taken for 24 h post-treatment and tissues (fat, liver, kidney, muscle and injection site) collected at 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following injection. Milk from lactating goats was collected every 12 h for 8 days following both the i.m. and s.c. treatments utilizing an intervening 5-week washout period. Residues in serum and tissue were measured using a microbial inhibition assay, while milk residues were measured using both a microbial inhibition assay and a validated HPLC method. The serum pharmacokinetic parameters of OTC in goats were determined, with a mean AUC=67.4 microg h/mL, mean terminal half-life=14.4 h, and apparent clearance=0.33 L/kg h. Tissue half-lives could not be determined with confidence because the collection times provided only two points at which residues could be measured for most tissues. Oxytetracycline residues in all goat tissue samples measured less then cattle tissue tolerance by 96 h postdosing. One-compartment model describing milk depletion data for i.m. and s.c. dosing had terminal slope half-lives of 20.1 and 36.1 h, respectively. By 96 h post-treatment none of the milk samples contained OTC residues in excess of the cattle milk tolerance (0.3 p.p.m.). For both milk and tissue, the upper-bound 99% confidence intervals for the samples taken from goats 96 h postdosing were lower than approved cow milk and tissue tolerances.

    PMID: 11874523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Serum pharmacokinetics and tissue and milk residues of oxytetracycline in goats following a single intramuscular injection of a long-acting preparation and milk residues following a single subcutaneous injection.
    Oxytetracycline is a broad spectrum, effective against a variety of bacteria both gram positive and gram negative, and infections caused by rickettsiae, some mycoplasmas, and chlamydia.
    There is increasing resistance to oxytetracycline by many staph ( an opportunistic gram-positive bacteria) and strep organisms (44% of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracycline). Most strains of E.coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter & Pseudomonas aeruginosa are also resistant to oxytetracycline.
    Often combined with sulfas (e.g., [Albon] sulfadimethoxine) with which they are synergistic.
    A good therapy for metritis (uterine infection) following freshening, navel or joint ill in young kids (always treat joint/naval ill for a full 10 days), and is the preferred medication for the most the common causes of contagious keratoconjunctivitis ("pinkeye") in goats, mycoplasma & chlamydia. Moraxella bovis in the most common cause of "pinkeye" in cattle.
    LA-200 injections can be painful, Oxy-Tet 200 & Bio-Mycin 200 use a different “carrier” that is not painful or as irritating to tissues when given SC (SQ) and rubbed in well.
    In addition to injecting it, oxytetracycline can also be combined with sterile saline solution (5ml LA-200, Oxy-Tet, or Bio-Mycin 200 15ml sterile water ) and infused directly into the uterus.
    Also, effective against most mastitis causing bacteria via systemic injection.
    For susceptible bacteria a drop of oxytetracycline directly in the eye is very effective.

    CAUTIONS: In young animals high doses or chronic administration may delay bone growth and healing. It should be avoided during early pregnancy if possible.
    CAUTIONS: Can cause photosensitivity (sensitivity to the sun).
    INTERACTIONS: "Natural medicine" (herbs) and oxytetracycline :There have been reports of goldenseal, barberry, and grape seed extract, reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics, specifically tetracycline and tetracycline-derivatives. oxytetracycline/tetracyclines references

    Misc references for use of oxytetracycline in goats
    "OXYTETRACYCLINE TO RELAX THE FLEXOR STRUCTURES" by KANEPS, ANDRIS, DVM, PHD, DIP ACVS & B.SMITH, DVM Oxytetracycline (3 gm in 250-500 ml of sterile saline administered slowly, IV) has been used to relax the flexor structures in foals. The mechanism of action is unknown but is believed to be due to chelation of calcium within muscle making less calcium available for muscle contraction and resulting in passive elongation of limb muscles. This treatment is most commonly used for congenital flexural deformities and may be repeated every 24 hours for up to 3 doses. Because there have been reports of renal toxicity with this treatment, determination of renal function and verification of hydration status are recommended before and after treatment.
    If active chlamydial infection is thought to be present in a flock of pregnant ewes then treatment with long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg) is an option which will reduce the severity of infection. For best effect it should be given as soon after 95-100 days gestation as possible, when any potential cases of placental infection will have commenced. A second injection 2 weeks later will further reduce losses. However, some ewes will still abort and many may excrete infection at lambing time.
    David Baxton and David Henderson British VMA In Practice, July/August 1999
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  2. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    Re: Antibiotics~Saanendoah.com

    THE PENICILLINS
    There are 4 classes of penicillins from narrow to broad range of effectiveness,
    based upon their ability to kill various types of bacteria.
    Natural penicillins and penicillinase-resistant penicillins: Penicillin G and Penicillin V

    Various brand names include: Penicillin G: Penicillin G Potassium, Penicillin G Procaine, Pen BP-48, Dual-Pen Penicillin V: Pen-V
    Not useful against penicillinase or beta-lactamase producing bacteria or most gram negative bacteria
    Aminopenicillins: Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Cyclacillin, Hetacillin
    Not as useful against anaerobic bacteria as natural penicillins.
    Aminopenicillins are not effective against those bacteria that produce penicillinase or beta-lactamase.
    Vet Res Commun. 1999 Dec;23(Cool:507-14. Related Articles, Links
    Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Desert sheep and Nubian goats.
    Elsheikh HA, Taha AA, Khalafalla AE, Osman IA, Wasfi IA. Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid. elsheikh59@yahoo.com
    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin were studied in five Desert sheep and five Nubian goats after intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Following i.v. injection, the plasma concentration-versus-time data were best described by a two-compartment open model. The kinetic variables were similar in both species except for the volume of the central compartment (Vc), which was larger in sheep (p<0.05). Following i.m. injection, except for the longer half-life time of absorption in goats (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters between sheep and goats. The route of amoxicillin administration had no significant effect on the terminal elimination half-life in either species. The bioavailability of the drug (F) after i.m. administration was high (> 0.90) in both species. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin did not differ between sheep and goats; furthermore, because of the high availability and short half-life of absorption, the i.m. route gives similar results to the i.v. route. Therefore, identical intramuscular and intravenous dose regimens should be applicable to both species.
    PMID: 10672967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Extended-spectrum penicillins: Alpha-carboxypenicillins : carbenicillin, Acylaminopenicillins: piperacillin
    Brand names include: Carbenicillin: Geocillin (oral), Geopen (oral and injectable)
    Extended-spectrum penicillins are not commonly used. They are prescribed for certain bacterial infections when other antibiotics are ineffective.
    Extended-spectrum penicillins treat similar infections as the aminopenicillins but have additional activity against more gram negative bacteria. Susceptible to inactivation by penicillinase and beta-lactamase producing bacteria.
    Potentiated penicillins: Amoxicillin-potassium clavulanate, ampicillin-sulbactam
    Brand names: Augmentin and Clavamox contain amoxicillin plus potassium clavulanate
    Potentiated pencillins have potassium clavulanate and sulbactam added to reduce inactivation by beta-lactamases. These additional compounds increase the types of bacteria against which various classes of penicillin are effective. Potentiated penicillins are often used in skin infections.
    PENICILLIN TRIVIA: sulfa drugs developed in 1932 were the first antibiotics, but effective only against one class of bacteria. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1929 but no one could figure out how to produce it in 1939 two British scientists, Howard Florey and Ernest Chain, figured out how to produce a stable preparation and showed its value (treating 5 patients) the US was asked in the summer of 1941 to develop mass production seen as of tremendous military value factory production began in Dec. 1943, though it was restricted to military use until March 1945.
    There are many forms of penicillin, and dosages vary greatly
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    PROCAINE PENICILLIN G
    Extra label in goats
    Various brand names
    300,000 units Procaine Penicillin G/mL
    DOSE: 10,000 units/lb twice daily with higher doses for well established infections. One mg of penicillin G procaine is equivalent to 900-1050 USP Units.
    DOSE: Kids - 1-2ml SC (SQ) for baby goats (8-25lbs), 1 or 2 times daily.
    DOSE: Adults - 6-10 ml SC (SQ) for adult goats, 1X or 2X daily.
    You can double recommend maximum dose on first injection, then divided daily dose and inject every 12 hours for 2-3 days, then 1X daily thereafter.
    STORAGE: Refrigerate (36°-46°F, 2°-8°C). Protect from freezing. To prevent procaine toxicity, keeping procaine penicillin at proper storage temperature and following shelf life recommendations are recomended to avoid any degradation of the product.
    WITHDRAWAL:
    MILK: Extra label in goats . Goats: 5 days given SQ at 10,000 - 20,000 IU/lb/lb once daily (SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP). Dairy Cattle: (at label dose rate) 48-72 hours. Note:penicillin G is distributed into milk; in food animals the distribution is sufficient to cause violative residues. However, (label dose) the concentrations of penicillin produced in milk are subtherapeutic for most bacteria. In sheep, 0.11% of an intramuscular injection of sodium penicillin G was distributed into the milk.
    MEAT Extra label in goats Goats: 14-20 days given SQ at 10,000 - 20,000 IU/lb once daily (SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP) BACTERICIDAL
    Interferes with cell wall synthesis
    Classes of Penicillin

    Pennicillin references
    Antibiotic for treating gram positive infections.
    Widespread resistance.
    Penicillin is particularly effective against streptococcus infections.
    Penicillin is often administered along with gentamicin ( NOTE:see gentamicin below ) or Naxel . If you use one of these combo's administer via seperate syringes, do not mix together in the same syringe.
    Beta-Lactam/Aminoglycoside Combinations
    Generally speaking, this combination is synergistic because the penicillins/Beta-Lactams used to target gram positive and anaerobic bacteria will damage the cell wall, allowing the aminoglycoside used to target gram negative aerobes to enter the
    bacterial cell (even gram positive or anaerobic bacteria).
    This combination of drugs is especially useful when:
    1. a resistant Pseudomonas or Proteus is encountered, in which case a specific anti-pseudomonal agent such as a 4 th generation cephalosporin could be used together with gentamicin
    2. the full regular dose of aminoglycoside is too toxic to the kidneys - in this case you may use the full dose of a penicillin with a lower-than-normal dose of gentamicin; this combination will be less toxic than the normal dose of gentamicin alone
    Blood levels tend to drop starting 12 hours after injection. Can dose every 24 hr if unable to treat more often or at the end of an illness, once you have it well under control.
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    . PENICILLIN, LONG ACTING (LA)
    Extra label in goats
    Penicillin procaine & penicillin benzathine combo. Supposed to be a long acting penicillin that remains in the bloodstream for 48 hrs, though there is widespread resistance to both penicillin procaine and benzathine, and studies have shown that the benzathine (long acting) form of penicillin has too slow an absorption time to reach recommended therapeutic levels.
    From 2000 United States Pharmacopeia (USP) **: Benzathine penicillin G is the least soluble of the dosage forms and so is the most slowly absorbed; the longest sustained but lowest plasma concentrations of penicillin G are produced.

    PENICILLIN G BENZATHINE AND PENICILLIN G PROCAINE INJECTABLE SUSPENSION USP
    Note: Penicillin G benzathine and penicillin G procaine combination has been replaced by other more effective medications . Although products containing penicillin G procaine and penicillin G benzathine combined may be effective in the treatment of extremely sensitive organisms, the plasma concentration of penicillin G produced by
    the administration of recommended doses of penicillin G benzathine drops to such a low level after 12 to 48 hours that it becomes ineffective in the treatment of most systemic infections. No dosage of these penicillin G procaine and penicillin G benzathine combinations can be recommended as likely to be effective for many infections caused by penicillin-sensitive organisms .
    Even when administered at label doses, the risk exists for residues, which are 30 to 60 times the maximum limit, to occur at the injection site

    DOSE: Do not inject the intramuscularly (IM). 3-4ml per 100lbs. 5 ml SC (SQ) every 24 hours for adult goats. A 48 hour dose schedule leaves animal with very low levels of antibiotics in the bloodstream beyond 36 hr. Recommend use at either 24 hour intervals in a sick animal, 36-48 hours intervals for treatment of skin problems or as a preventative measure is acceptable.
    WITHDRAWAL:
    MILK: NOT APPROVED Dairy Cattle: (at label dose rate) 48-72 hours.
    MEAT: NOT APPROVED
    Extra label in goats Goats: 30 days given SQ at 20,000 IU/lb once daily ( SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP)

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    AMPICILLINRx item
    Ampicillin Trihydrate
    Extra label in goats
    Various brands and strengths
    When reconstituted, each milliliter contains ampicillin trihydrate equivalent to 50, 100, 250, or 400 milligrams of ampicillin.
    DOSE: 7-10mg IM or SQ (SC) per pound twice daily (1.75 to 2.5 mL of the 400mg/mL strength per 100 pounds).
    STORAGE: Refrigerate (36°-46°F, 2°-8°C). Protect from freezing. To prevent procaine toxicity, keeping procaine penicillin at proper storage temperature and following shelf life recommendations are recomended to avoid any degradation of the product.
    WITHDRAWAL:
    MILK: Extra label in goats .Dairy Cattle: (at label dose rate) 48-72 hours.
    MEAT Extra label in goats Beef Cattle: (at label dose rate) 6 days.
     

  3. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    Re: Antibiotics~Saanendoah.com

    GENTAMICIN: (gentamicin sulfate)
    Do not use in food producing animals
    Gentocin®, Garacin
    50mg/ml or 100mg/ml
    DOSE : Given SC (SQ) at <1 to 1.50mg/lb twice daily. Often combined with penicillin to achieve a broad spectrum of activity and to minize the development of resistant strains. When gentamicin is administered together with penicillin, the two, medicines must be administered at different sites. NOTE: Dose carefully in obese animals (decrease by 10- 20% in very obese animals), the aminoglycosides do not distribute to fat.
    Ophthalmic Solution: (3 mg/ml) - Mix 1ml if 50mg/ml strength in 16ml Saline Solution [or commercial eye drops i.e. Visine] and use to treat infected eyes. Ophthalmic use may retard corneal epithelial healing.
    WITHDRAWAL : Not approved for meat or lactating animals in the US. Can be detected in kidney tissues for up to 18 months.
    Use with carebacterial resistance to gentamicin is developing .

    http://www.farad.org/publications/digests/062005ExtralabelIntramammary.pdf

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2666204/

    (added by forum for your reading on withdrawls.)
    CAUTION: Before using always check the label for the strength, gentamicin comes in several strengths and administering a 50mg dose of 100mg gentamicin could cause serious damage.
    CAUTION: Gentamicin must be carefully dosed by the weight of the animal [weigh chart ] and for a limited time (3-5 days), as it is highly toxic to the kidneys (acute tubular necrosis) and ears ( irreversible acoustic nerve damage ) when overdosed even a relitively small amount or used for extended periods of time, particularly in dehydrated, debilitated or young animals. Avoid in geriatric animals.
    Do not use with diuretics as it increases the risk of kidney damage.
    Do not use in combination with other aminoglycosides.
    Do not use with other products that may cause hearing loss, vestibular disease, or kidney disease.
    Do not use with general anesthetics.
    CAUTION : GENTAMICIN SHOULD NEVER BE USED IN FOOD PRODUCING ANIMALS OR ANIMALS INTENDED FOR FOOD (residues can be detected in kidney tissues for up to 18 months).

    BACTERICIDAL
    DRUG FAMILY : aminoglycosides
    CONTRAINDICATIONS: Untreated dehydration, renal disease, known neuro-muscular disease.
    An aminoglycoside antibiotic with a bactericidal action against gram-negative and some gram positive bacteria. Susceptible bacteria are staphylococci, E. coli, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Serratia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium and Actinobacillus. No markedly allergenic. Can be used concurrently with carbenicillin for the treatment of serious Pseudomonas infections. However, the drugs should not be mixed in the same syringe because carbenicillin will inactivate gentamicin.

    British Veterinary Journal 1995 Jul-Aug;151(4):453-8

    Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin following single-dose parenteral administration to goats.

    Garg SK, Verma SP, Uppal RP.

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, H.P. Agricultural University, Palampur, India.

    The disposition kinetics of parenterally administered gentamicin (5 mg kg-1) has been studied in Gaddi goats. The serum concentration-time profile was described by bi-exponential and mono-exponential equations following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with elimination half-life values of 0.96 +/- 0.09, 2.37 +/- 0.47 and 3.56 +/- 0.39 h, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution following i.v. administration (Vdarea: 0.26 +/- 0.041 kg-1) reflected limited extracellular distribution of the drug. The bioavailability was higher following i.m. administration (96.3Confused compared to s.c. (76.9Confused. In view of the significantly longer biological half-life and larger area under the curve values, the s.c. route may be preferred. It is concluded that a suitable and practical dosage recommendation for gentamicin in goats would be 3.35 mg kg-1 body weight given s.c. at 12 h intervals.

    PMID: 7552201 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    Misc references for use of gentamicin in goats



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    AMIKACIN(amikacin sulfate) Rx item
    Do not use in food producing animals
    50mg/ml or 100mg/ml
    Veterinary Res 1997 Nov-Dec;28(6):565-70
    Comparative pharmacokinetics of amikacin following a single intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in goats (Capra hircus).

    Uppal RP, Verma SP, Verma V, Garg SK.
    Department of Pharmacology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India.

    The pharmacokinetics of amikacin sulfate was investigated following a single intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration (10 mg/kg). The plasma concentration versus time data were analysed using the biexponential equation for first-order absorption and elimination phases for both the i.m. and s.c. routes. The absorption half life values for the i.m. and s.c. routes were found to be 14.64 and 12.36 min, respectively. The biological half-life values of amikacin following i.m. and s.c. routes were found to be 84.46 and 93.96 min, respectively. The systemic availability of amikacin for both the i.m. (102.15 +/- 5.08%) and s.c. (106.82 +/- 12.95%) routes was found to be almost complete. Thus, based on the data of short absorption half life, almost complete systemic availability, slightly longer biological half life and ease of administration, we suggest that the s.c. route be preferred over the i.m. route for amikacin administration in goats. Amikacin at a dose level of 8 mg/kg body weight at 12 h intervals would result in a therapeutic peak plasma concentration (Cpmax) of 32.30 micrograms/mL, which is not expected to produce any oto- or nephropathic effects.

    PMID: 9428150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
     
  4. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    Re: Antibiotics~Saanendoah.com

    Naxcel ® (Ceftiofur sodium) & Excenel ® (Ceftiofur hydrocloride)
    IS THERE A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NAXCEL AND EXCENEL?
    A bioavailability and bioequivalence comparison of ceftiofur hydrochloride and sodium salts in the bovine. (TR 788-9760-87-015) D.B. Johnson and D.D. Kratzer.
    14C-ceftiofur concentrations in lung and whole blood of cattle following intramuscular administration of 14C-ceftiofur hydrochloride or 14C-ceftiofur sodium at 1.0 mg CE/lb (2.2 mg CE/kg) BW daily for five consecutive days.


    AUC Ceftiofur Ratio Confidence Interval
    (µg·h/mL) HCL Na (HCl/Na) Lower Upper
    0-24 hours 42.9 51 0.84 69 99
    24-48 hours 52.1 53.9 0.97 84 110
    48-72 hours 58.6 58.7 1.00 83 116
    72-96 hours 60 57.9 1.04 89 118
    Lung Conc.(ppm) 1.15 1.18 1.02 86 118

    The Day 5 AUC following administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride was demonstrated to be bioequivalent to the Day 5 AUC values following administration of ceftiofur sodium.

    Based upon the 90% confidence interval about the difference in treatment means, the total exposure of lung tissue to ceftiofur and its desfuroylceftiofur metabolites is determined to be equivalent following repeated IM administrations of identical doses of ceftiofur hydrochloride and ceftiofur sodium.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed the clinical effectiveness of IM administration of ceftiofur hydrochloride for the treatment of the bacterial component of BRD. Since the original formulation of ceftiofur hydrochloride is bioequivalent to ceftiofur sodium and the revised formulation has equal relative plasma bioavailability to ceftiofur sodium, the clinical conclusions obtained in this clinical study are relevant to the revised formulation of ceftiofur hydrochloride.

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    NAXCEL® ( Ceftiofur sodium ) Rx item
    Now approved for goats - January 2002

    Reconstituted = 50 mg/mL of ceftiofur sodium
    DOSE : 2 mg per pound, divided into a twice daily dose (1mL per 50 pounds twice a day). Pharmacokinetic data indicate that elimination of ceftiofur is more rapid in lactating does. Do not under dose, particularly in lactating does.
    In cattle ceftiofur sodium one hour following injection there is no diference between the pharmacokinetics of IM or IV or SQ (SC,subcutaneous injection).
    WITHDRAWAL : Approved for lactating cattle, sheep, and GOATS ( June 28, 2000 - as a minor species) for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia due to Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica and P. multocida in the U.S. No withdrawal time with when used either SC(SQ) or IM at label dose.
    It is often used in conjunction with penicillin.
    Naxcel has a very short shelf life (7 days) once the powder is reconstituted, but it can be frozen for up to 8 weeks.
    Store unreconstituted product at controlled room temperature (68 to 77 degrees).
    BACTERICIDAL
    DRUG FAMILY : Cephalosporin
    Note: A relatively new and expensive, broad rage antibiotic. Approved for use in cattle and has no withdrawal or milk withholding time at label doses. Important: the label dose does not produce therapeutic levels in udder since the drug
    does not distribute to the udder, so it is not useful for the treatment of mastitis when used according to the label. ( University of Guelph ). Low tissue penetration

    Misc references for use of Naxcel/Excenel in goats
    FDA Freedom of Information Summary 3/2001
    2001 - CEFTIOFUR APPROVED FOR MEAT AND DAIRY GOATS - Pharmacia (previously Upjohn) Animal Health has gained a label addition for ceftiofur sodium (Naxcel® Sterile Powder) which allows for its use in the treatment of caprine respiratory disease (goat pneumonia). When given on-label to dairy or meat goats at 0.5 to 1.0 mg/lb, IM, once a day for up to 5 days, neither a milk discard nor a pre-slaughter withdrawal period is required. Naxcel® is a prescription product and prescribing veterinarians must meet labeling requirements for product left on the farm or dairy. Ceftiofur is the first systemic antibiotic approved for use in goats and the first goat drug specifically approved for use in dairy goats. The approval of Naxcel® for goats was accomplished in part through the National Research Support Project #7 (NRSP-7), the Minor Use Animal Drug Program. This cooperative university, federal and pharmaceutical industry program’s mission is approval of animal health products for minor uses and species.
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    EXCENEL® (Ceftiofur hydrocloride) Rx item
    Extra label in goats

    50 mg/mL of Ceftiofur hydrocloride
    see Naxcel (above)


    DOSE at 2 mg per pound = 2mL/100# once daily. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that elimination of cetiofur is more rapid in lactating does. Do not under dose, particularly in lactating does.
    WITHDRAWAL : No withdrawal time at label dose.
    Store at controlled room temperature 68 to 77 degrees. Protect from freezing.
    2002 FDA approved for treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD), footrot, and post partum metritis in beef and lactating dairy cattle. No milk withdrawal at label doses (five consecutive days at 2 mL per 100 pounds of bodyweight). 2 day meat withdrawal.
    BACTERICIDAL
    DRUG FAMILY : Cephalosporin


    The same cefriofur antibiotic as Naxcel in a different base that is approved for swine (approved for cattle late '98 ), one advantage is a longer shelf life (mfg: 14 days after the first dose is removed), and it does not require refrigeration.
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    NUFLOR Rx item
    Extra label in goats

    300mg/ml of florfenicol
    NOTE:July 2002Temporary halt to production of Banamine & Nuflor
    Banamine, Nuflor, are among the drugs that are temporarily out of production.
    Supplies of Banamine and Nuflor, in the United States will be limited to the stock that distributors have available.
    DOSE at 6mL/100 lbs SC (SQ) every 4 days, or 3.5mL/100 lbs IM in the neck area every 2 days.
    WITHDRAWAL : Approved for beef cattle only, meat withdrawal 38 days following one SC (SQ) injection. For two-dose IM treatment the withdrawal period is 28 days. The FDA has not established a milk discard time, tolerance or safe level for florfenicol in milk.
    Extra label in goats . Goats: 28 days given SQ at 9mg/lb SC every 48 hours. Source - 10-12,2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP .
    Studies in goats indicate Florfenicol concentrations in milk equal serum concentrations.
    Florfenicol has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and is primarily BACTERIOSTATIC. Because of its low protein binding and extensive tissue distribution, florfenicol reaches higher levels in tissue than serum, reaching clinically effective concentrations at sites of infection. Studies on pharmacokinetics have also been conducted in horses, goats and pigs with Nuflor, although there are no label recommendations for these species.
    ADVERSE REACTIONS : Possible temporary decrease in feed and water intake. Diarrhea has been reported in cattle. Local tissue reaction and soreness at IM injection site.
    STORAGE : Store between 2-30 degrees Celsius (36-86 degrees Fahrenheit). Refrigeration is not required. The solution is light yellow to straw colored. Color does not affect potency.
    TIP : Nuflor is oil based, use a 18 or 20 guage needle to avoid extended syringe filling and injection time.
    The FDA on extra-label use Nuflor in the dairy
    Note: Florfenicol belongs to the same antibiotic family as chloramphenicol. Florfenicol is chemically different from chloramphenicol and is not linked to chloramphenicol's human toxicity concerns (bone marrow suppression and aplastic anemia in humans). The FDA prohibited the use of chloramphenicol in all food-producing animals in 1984
    From 10th Central Veterinary Conference Proceedings: Florfenicol is well absorbed from the normal mammary gland in cattle and combined intramammary infusion of 1500 mg (5 ml) into the affected quarter, q12h, for 3 consecutive milkings and parenteral injection of 3 ml/100 lb, IM, q48h is theoretically of benefit for treatment of coliform mastitis.
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  5. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    Re: Antibiotics~Saanendoah.com

    TYLAN: (tylosin)
    Extra label in goats

    Tylan 200® - 200mg tylosin per ml
    Tylan also comes as Tylan 50 (50mg tylosin/ml), check bottle for strength and adjust the ml rate.
    Tylan 200 is NOT the same as LA-200.
    DOSE : (FOR Tylan 200 ) 1.5-2.0 ml SC(SQ) for baby goats, 3.5 to 5.0ml per 100 pounds [7-10mg/lb] for adults, one time daily. Bacteriostatic Effective against gram positive bacteria + Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsia. I've used at doses as high as 20-30mg/lb (10+ ml/cc per 100 pounds) in both adults and kids.
    Intramuscular bioavailability—Goats: 72.6% (15 mg per kg of body weight [mg/kg] dose)
    WITHDRAWAL: Extra label in goats .
    Goats: MEAT : 30 days given at 10mg/lb once daily ( SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP)
    Goats: MILK : 96 hours given at 10mg/lb once daily( SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP)
    Not approved for lactating animals in the U.S., outside the U.S. there is a 96 hour withholding/withdrawal time in lactating cattle, and 8-21 days in beef cattle.
    Erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin concentrations in milk can be much higher than concentrations in serum.
    ADVERSE REACTIONS : Tylan injections are painful and the animal usually develops a painful swelling at the injection site that may last for some time, particularly with IM injections. I never use it IM anymore.
    Do not administer to horses or other equines. Injection of tylosin in equines has been fatal.
    A good antimicrobial for upper respiratory infections and some forms of enteritis. The only antibiotic that really hits mycoplasma arthritis in young kids (see below).
    BACTERIOSTATIC at low concentrations, BACTERICIDALat high doses.
    DRUG FAMILY : Macrolides
    MYCOPLASMAL POLYARTHRITIS: which affects kids at 4-6 weeks of age, will usually only respond to massive doses of Tylan 200 [40mg per lb. = 4ml per 20 pounds) 3X daily for 2 days, then 2X daily for 3 days and 30mg per lb (3ml/20 pounds) 1X daily for 10 additional days. Mycoplasma must be treated for a 12-14 days!
    Most printed veterinary references state that while this treatment will get the active disease under control, but the "cured" animal will be a carrier for life, able to pass it on to its offspring through the colostral milk. My personal experience with mycoplasma [mycoplasma mycodies, subspecies mycodies (large colony) ] in my and other local herds has been that it does not return in an animal if full course of treatment is given and I have seen no evidence in my herd that it is passed to offspring. I have kept maticulous records and lab statistics since my first case in the late '80's. I've never had a doe have more than one kid affected, even with twins nursing. Nor has a doe had an affected kid in subsequent years. I've never had a doe that had mycoplasma as a kid pass it to her nursing kids. It appears equally in dam raised and pasturized milk fed kids. In the hand raised kids usually only one or two in a group, or on a common lambar were ever affected. Other local herd experiences mirror mine. I haven't had a case of mycoplasma in my herd since 1996, and that year just one kid was affected. We lost only one kid to mycoplasma, the first on that was treated by our vet with penicillin (mycoplasma was diagnosed until the postmortum exam). Note: mycoplasma in kids was particularly prevalent in this area in 2001. There were more cases locally than I've seen in the past twenty years.

    Mycoplasma sometimes presents as a severe systematic infection without signs of arthritis. Or, just arthritis in one joint with little swelling ( what I see most often). It always produces high fevers initially (106+). It is sometimes accompanied by pneumonia, diarrhea, keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye), though I've never seen anyting any of these in my herd. I have lab reports from other herds/areas on kids that died suddenly from an overwhelming systemic mycoplasmal infection.

    Not to be confused with the related bacterium Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (MmmSC) that causes a serious disease in cattle, called contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.

    Pasteurizing milk to kill mycoplasma


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    Mycoplasma is one of the tiniest free-living organisms known. Mycoplasma are small bacteria that do not contain a cell wall. They are difficult to grow in culture media and their growth is slow.
    Mycoplasma mycoides, subspecies mycoides, large colony (MmmLC) - is the most commonly isolated species in caprine mycoplasmal arthritis and mastitis.
    In sheep and goats (world wide) other Mycoplasma pathogens include,
    M. mycoides subspecies capri - contagious caprine pleuropneumonia NOT IN THE UNITED STATES
    M. ovipneumoniae - intersitial pneumonia in lambs
    M. agalactiae - Contagious agalactia, arthritis, vulvovaginitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonitis Although three isolations of M. agalactiae have been reported from the United States, it appears that North American strains are of low virulence and do not cause classical CA
    M. capricolum - Mastitis, polyarthritis, septicemia
    M. conjunctivae - Keratoconjunctivitis
    M. ovipneumoniae - Chronic pneumonia
    M. putrefaciens - Mastitis
    M. strain F38 - Septicemia, pleuropneumonia
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    ALBON & Di-METHOX 40% injectable
    Extra label in goats
    Sulfadimethoxine 400mg/mL [40%]
    Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs):
    Broad spectrum, but high resistance has developed,
    and there is a high incidence of allergic reactions.
    DOSE rate - initial dose - 25 milligrams per pound of body weight followed by 12.5 milligrams per pound of body weight every 24 hours = 1mL (IV or SQ (SC) only) per 16 pounds for initial dose, then reduce by 1/2 for 2-5 days.
    WITHDRAWAL :
    MEAT 7 days.
    MILK : 60 hours (5 milkings) .
    BACTERIOSTATIC
    Drug Family: Folic Acid Inhibitors
    Broad spectrum, Coccidiostat.
    Respiratory, genitourinary tract, enteric, and soft tissue infections caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella organisms sensitive to sulfadimethoxine.
    Albon products:
    Albon ® Tablets
    Agribon 12.5% Drinking Water Solution
    Agribon Boluses - 15.0
    Agribon Boluses - 2.5, 5.0, 15.0, 5.0
    Agribon Injection 40%
    Albon Oral Suspension 5%
    Agribon Soluble Powder
    Albon ® S.R. (Sustained Release)
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    SMP(sulfamethoxypyridazine)
    Extra label in goats
    Veterinary Res 1997;28(1):101-4
    Bioavailability of sulfamethoxypyridazine following intramuscular or subcutaneous administration in goats.

    Garg SK, Uppal RP.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, HP Agricultural University, Palampur, India.

    The pharmacokinetics of sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMP) was investigated in goats after a single intramuscular (im) or subcutaneous (sc) administration (100 mg/kg body weight). The biological half lives of SMP following im and sc administration were found to be 11.0 and 13.7 h, respectively. The systemic availabilities of the drug were calculated to be 68.6 and 58.7% following im and sc injections, respectively. The rapidity of absorption, almost similar availability, comparatively longer biological half-life and ease of administration suggest that the sc route of administration might be preferred over the im route. To achieve and maintain serum concentrations 25 micrograms/mL, a rational dosage regimen of SMP for goats would be 55 and 38 mg/kg body weight as the loading and maintenance doses, respectively, with a dosage interval of 24 h by the sc route.

    PMID: 9172837 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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    ERYTHROMYCIN("Gallimycin ®")
    Extra label in goats
    MILKWITHDRAWAL Goats: 72 hours at 1mg/lb SQ once daily ( SOURCE- 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP) .
    Erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin concentrations in milk can be much higher than concentrations in serum.
    BACTERIOSTATICat low concentrations, BACTERICIDALat high doses.
    DRUG FAMILY : Macrolides
    Erythromycin is an old antibiotic, a “re-discovered” favorite in human medicine now, also sometimes used by diary cattle producers to treat strep ag mastitis. Bacteriostatic at low concentrations, bacteriocidal at high concentrations. Effective against gram positive bacteria + Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Rickettsia. My experience with Erythromycin is very limited (I'm not even sure of the most effective dose) and I don't know of many other uses it's recommended or used for anymore. (Note: there is some indication that intramammary infusion of Erythromycin may cause allergic reactions in some goats).

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    .. BAYTRIL(enrofloxacin) Rx item
    DO NOT USE - NO EXTRA LABEL USE PERMITTED IN FOOD ANIMALS

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    January 2002 - PSR
    Bayer also produces Ciprol, a closely related antibiotic. The importance of Cipro is extremely evident with the recent anthrax scare, which illustrates the importance of keeping our antibioics effective. Cipro is an important antibiotic in the treatment of many other illnesses as well, and the use of Baytril could contribute to the development of Cipro resistant bacteria.
    Bayer has been asked by the FDA to remove Baytril from the market because of the dangers it presents to human health.



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    Baytril 100 (enrofloxacin) (Bayer) Injectable Solution has been granted VERY LIMITED approval (July 1998) for use in beef cattle (28 day meat withdrawal). BACTERICIDAL, broad spectrum, except anaerobes. Fluoroquinolones act by deactivating bacterial enzymes necessary for the transcription of DNA.
    Extra-label use of fluoroquinolones, including Baytril 100, in food animals is prohibited under Title 21, Part 530.41, of the Code of Federal Regulations .
    Primarily active against gram-negative organisms. Not effective for anaerobics or Strep or some Staphs. Good activity against enteric bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia and E. coli. Good for urinary tract infections, especially if Pseudomonas, Proteus, or Klebsiella is involved. Also used for some respiratory tract infections, and bone infections.
    CAUTION: Baytril can disturb cartilage formation in growing animals. Young animals treated with enrofloxacin may develop damage to the cartilage of their joints. Swollen joints and lameness are clinical signs that may be observed.

    DRUG FAMILY : Quinolones / Fluoroquinolones
    PRECAUTIONS: Quinolone-class drugs should be used with caution in animals with known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In such animals, quinolones have in rare instances, been associated with CNS stimulation which may lead to convulsive seizures. Quinolones have been shown to produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
    Baytril storage conditions: “Do not refrigerate, freeze or store above 104 degrees. Precipitation may occur due to cold temperature. To redissolve, warm and then shake the vial.” Store the Baytril at room temperatre and it will work better. Numerous cooling and warming temperatures are detrimental to the antibiotic.
     
  6. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    MICOTIL® (Tilmicosin) Rx item
    300 mg of tilmicosin phosphate per mL
    PULMOTIL® - tilmicosin-Type B Medicated Feed for swine
    DO NOT USE - TOXIC TO GOATS - SOURCE - 10-12, 2000 Wool & Wattles, AASRP
    Elanco Animal Health - Division of Eli Lilly and Company
    MICOTIL® Label (pdf file)
    Micotil (tilmicosin) can cause fatal reactions in goats (particularly toxic to Alpines and Alpine crosses). In swine parenterully administered it is toxic even at low dosage levels. However, when orally administered, tilmicosin does not cause toxic reactions.It is also potentially fatal in horses, as well as human and non-human primates, with the cardiovascular system being the target of the toxicity. Micotil (tilmicosin) is labeled for sheep in the UK (meat withdrawal = 28 days). The mfg maintains a 24 hour 800 hot line number for accidental injection in humans. Avoid contact with eyes. Do not use in auto powered syringes or give IV, or IM. SQ use only in cattle. Intravenous injection in cattle will be fatal. In swine epinephrine increases the mortality rate.
    2002 - Micotil now comes in a protective shroud (reusable shroud constructed of heavy-duty recyclable clear plastic). The rubber stopper on the bottle is now more durable and there is a larger target area to insure safer handling and reduce the risk of accidental self injection. Larger vials are now shorter and more stout to fit more securely in the hand.


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    August '98 headline from a Newark newspaper:
    "Thief Grabs Killer Drug"
    An animal drug that can kill a human was stolen from a farmer's car ..........
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    NOT YET APPROVED, APPLICATION PENDING - July 2000: Tilmicosin phosphate injection, used for the treatment of sheep for bacterial pneumonia, is a new animal drug under section 201(v) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 321(v)). As a new animal drug, tilmicosin phosphate is subject to section 512 of the act (21 U.S.C. 360b), requiring that its uses in sheep be the subject of an approved NADA or supplemental NADA. Sheep are a minor species under Sec. 514.1(d)(1)(ii) (21 CFR 514.1(d)(1)(ii)).
    Withdrawal: Tilmicosin was found to be detectable in goat's milk for 11 days after a single subcutaneous dose. Res Vet Sci 1997 Jan-Feb;62(1):48-50
    BACTERIOSTATICat low concentrations, BACTERICIDAL at high doses.
    DRUG FAMILY : Macrolides
    Store below 86 degrees. Avoid continual warming and cooling.
    Efficacy of Parenterally or Intramammarily Administered Tilmicosin or Ceftiofur Against Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis During Lactation - W. E. OWENS, S. C. NICKERSON, and C. H. RAY
    Mastitis Research Laboratory, Hill Farm Research Station, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Homer
    ABSTRACT: Two antibiotic preparations, tilmicosin and ceftiofur, were tested intramammarily and parenterally against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in lactating cows. Neither product was effective as a lactating cow treatment at the doses and durations of treatment tested. Injection or infusion of tilmicosin and infusion of ceftiofur resulted in reductions of bacteria present in milk; however, only one quarter treated with infusion of tilmicosin was cured, and no cures were observed for the other treatments. Somatic cell counts were transiently reduced by infusion of ceftiofur and by infusion and injection of tilmicosin; however, they returned to pretreatment values by 28 d posttreatment.
    1999 J. Dairy Sci. 82:645-647
    © 1999, by the American Dairy Science Association. All rights reserved.
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    Veterinary News, Penn State university, Cooperative Extension, College of Agricultural Sciences (August 1998): Tilmicosin has casued mortality in some goats.
    Adverse Reaction to Tilmicosin in Goats
    REF: Animal Health Spectrum, 7(2), June 1996.
    A private practitioner was called to examine 10 adult goats following their purchase, 2 days previously, from a local stock yard. The animals appeared somewhat unthrifty and had nasal discharges. The animals were treated for parasites with ivermectin and for the apparent upper respiratory tract infection with tilmicosin. This antibiotic was selected because of its long duration of activity following a single dose treatment of cattle. Within 30 minutes of injection 3 of the animals died. These 3 were all of apparent Alpine stock. The remaining animals showed no apparent ill effects. The Poison Control Center at the University of Illinois was unaware of any reports of similar adverse reactions in goats but an Elanco representative indicated that the use of tilmicosin in goats in foreign countries has been associated with a high rate of drug-related deaths.
    Practitioners should be cautious about extra-label use of tilmicosin in goats. They might contemplate its use for treatment of Pasteurella haemolytica that had proven nonresponsive to other treatments such as penicillin, oxytetracycline or ceftiofur, but owners should be warned in advance about the lack of other options and the risks involved. Practitioners experiencing such drug-related problems should contact the drug’s manufacturer and the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Adverse Reaction Hotline 301/594-1722 during working hours of Monday to Friday, 7:30 - 4:30 EST; 301/594-0797 after hours; FAX 301/594-1812 so that the incident can be documented. The FDA’s ADR (Adverse Drug Reaction) information is published annually in the FDA Veterinarian and is also available through the FDA’s home page on the World Wide Web at http://www.fdable.com/aers/fda_adverse_events?gclid=CInvuICU4asCFSvftgodTmzyPwhttp://www.cvm.fd under the Office of Surveillance and Compliance category. The 1994 Adverse Drug Experience report published in the FDA Veterinarian Vol X, No. VI Nov/Dec 1995 cites two reports involving tilmicosin in goats and one in sheep.— Wool & Wattles, OCT/DEC 95. Herd Health Memo, University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Coperative Extension Service 1995-96 #10, April 1996.
     
  7. Sondra

    Sondra New Member

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    Re: Antibiotics~Saanendoah.com

    DICURAL (difloxacin HCl) Rx item
    new fluoroquinolone antibiotic from Fort Dodge Animal Health
    Federal law prohibits the extra-label use of this drug in food-producing animals.
    I have no information on the use of difloxcin in goats, but being a Quinolones / Fluoroquinolones its use is forbiden in food producing animal world wide.
    DRUG FAMILY : Quinolones / Fluoroquinolones
    PRECAUTIONS : Quinolone-class drugs should be used with caution in animals with known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In such animals, quinolones have in rare instances, been associated with CNS stimulation which may lead to convulsive seizures. Quinolones have been shown to produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
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    NOTE: Application has been made and is expected to be approved for the use of ADSPEC ™Sterile Solution (spectinomycin) (Upohn) in beef cattle.

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    This has been complied as information only, it is not intended as a means of diagnosing and treating an animal or to replace professional veterinary advice or care for your animals. This information is not intended to be a comprehensive review of any drugs, their uses, side effects, or special considerations. Veterinary consultation is vital when treating sick animals. Responsible decisions concerning treatments and drug safety or effectiveness must be made by each individual and their veterinarian. Never disregard veterinary advice or delay in seeking it as a result of information provided on this site. The administration of any medication should be taken very seriously.Medications given in the wrong circumstance, via the wrong route, or in the wrong combination can hurt or kill. The anecdotal information, experiences and thoughts are my own or those I’ve personal knowledge of and are not meant to represent the management practices or thinking of goat breeders in general or the veterinary community. This information is presented without guarantees, and the author disclaims all liability in connection with the use of this information. The extra-label use of any product in a food producing animal is illegal without a prescription from a veterinarian the includes the milk and meat withdrawal information (seeELDU Q&A ).

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    ** United States Pharmacopeia (USP) -National Formulary (NF) is the legally recongnized drug compendium for the USA and most of Central and South America. USP provides standards for more than 3700 medicines, dietary supplements, and dosage forms. USP establishs authoritative drug standards These standards are enforceable by the FDA and the governments of more than 35 other countries, and are recognized worldwide as the hallmark of quality.


    Joyce Lazzaro / Saanendoah Dairy Goats
    Winchester, California
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