ANESTHETICS, PREMEDICATIONS, AND SEDITIVES:
For information only!
Anesthetics, preprocedure medications and seditives
should ONLY be administered by a veterinarian.
ACEPROMAZINE (formerly acetylpromazine) (PromAce® ) : (0.054). 1 mg/kg IV (Smith, 1994) provides mild sedation, it is not considered particularly useful in goats ( Hellyer, 1991). A total dose of 3 mg of acepromazine should not be exceeded.
XYLAZINE: (Rompum®) (0.14).2 mg/kg IM), an alpha-2-agonist, may be used as a premedication. The low concentration (20 mg/ ml) formula should be used. Ruminants are more sensitive to the effects of xylazine than are most other species. Xylazine causes cardiovascular and respiratory depression, rumen atony with bloat, hyperglycemia with resultant diuresis, and abortions in late gestation ( Thurmon and Benson, 1986). Xylazine should not be used for animals with depressed cardiovascular function or urinary tract obstruction.
DIAZEPAM(Valium®): (0.254).5 mg/kg IV) is useful in providing sedation without analgesia in goats. Administer slowly intravenously ( Taylor, 1991).
KETAMINE (Ketaset ®, Vetalar ® ) and XYLAZINE (Rompum®) are usually used together as a preanesthetic to permit the intubation of the animal before using inhalation anesthetics. Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg) is given intravenously and ketamine (2 mg/kg IV) is given three to five minutes later. The intravenous dose of ketamine may be repeated if needed ( Ewing, 1990).
NOTE: Diazepam may be substituted for the xylazine in combination with ketamine when xylazine is contraindicated. A premedication dose of diazepam (0.5 mg/kg or one half this dose if the animal is over 50 kg) is slowly injected intravenously. Ketamine (2 mg/kg IV) should be given about three minutes later ( Ewing, 1990).
NOTE: For a longer affect, administration of xylazine (0.22 rog/ kg) and ketamine (11 mg/kg) IM in combination will give approximately 50 minutes of anesthesia. A prolonged recovery time of 1.5 to 2 hours is usual ( Ewing, 1990). A review of references will reveal other ketamine/ xylazine/diazepam "cocktails" that are used for goats. Some of these incorporate opioids into the protocol for additional analgesic effects.
Ultrashort acting barbiturates are often employed as induction agents. Thiamylal (8-14 mg/kg IV) or thiopental (10-16 mg/kg IV) allow intubation prior to inhalation anesthesia ( Ewing, 1990). These doses may be decreased if using a premedication sedative (Dr. Peter Hellyer, Personal Communication, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina).
Mask induction can be achieved using halothane or isoflurane in oxygen. Initially, the goat should be allowed to breathe 100 percent oxygen at a flow rate of 4 to 6 L/min for several minutes to achieve denitrification. The inhalant should be slowly increased by 0.5 percent increments every 30 seconds until a 3 to 3.5 percent vaporizer setting is reached. Intubation is likely to be possible in 10 minutes (Ewing, 1990 ). Oxygen flow rate can be decreased to 1 to 2 L/min and the vaporizer setting can be maintained at a level of 0.5-2 percent for halothane and 1-2 percent for isoflurane. Oxygen flow rate can be calculated by the following formula: 3-5 ml/lb body weight x 5 = oxygen flow rate in L/ min ( Dr. Frankee P. Elliot, Personal Communication, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri ). Proper precautions should be used to reduce human exposure to extraneous gasses by ensuring that a tight-fitting mask and a proper scavenging system are used during inhalation anesthesia.
Local and regional analgesics are often appropriate for certain procedures including orthopedic surgeries. A total dose of 2 percent lidocaine should not exceed 15 ml in any goat. Administration of diazepam as an anticonvulsant and proper ventilation support must be administered should complications arise ( Benson and Thurmon, 1986).
Updated January 22, 2002
This has been complied as information only, it is not intended as a means of diagnosing and treating an animal or to replace professional veterinary advice or care for your animals. This information is not intended to be a comprehensive review of any drugs, their uses, side effects, or special considerations. Veterinary consultation is vital when treating sick animals. Responsible decisions concerning treatments and drug safety or effectiveness must be made by each individual and their veterinarian. Never disregard veterinary advice or delay in seeking it as a result of information provided on this site. The administration of any medication should be taken very seriously.Medications given in the wrong circumstance, via the wrong route, or in the wrong combination can hurt or kill. The anecdotal information, experiences and thoughts are my own or those I’ve personal knowledge of and are not meant to represent the management practices or thinking of goat breeders in general or the veterinary community. This information is presented without guarantees, and the author disclaims all liability in connection with the use of this information. The extra-label use of any product in a food producing animal is illegal without a prescription from a veterinarian the includes the milk and meat withdrawal information (seeELDU Q&A ).