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Thank you Sue for allowing us to post your articles

Research report published by the AASRP (American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners) a while back, indicating that the most effective med used in treatment of listeriosis is gentamicin, combined with amoxicillin. I don't always agree with pharmaceutical research reports, but since I'd already tried gentamicin (although by itself, not in combination with amoxicillin or any other antibiotic) in treating Listeriosis and found it amazingly effective (in fact much more so than even oxytetracycline 200, which had been, for me, the next most effective choice for treating this disease) I do agree that it would definitely be the drug of choice in treating Listeriosis, but ONLY if combined with Banamine (NOT dexamethasone, which will disconnect the immune system while in the body, thus taking away the goat's ability to help fight off its own disease!!!) to reduce the swelling in the brain and ocular nerves that's a part of Listeriosis. The only caveat to this is that it's critical to dose gentamicin very carefully by weight of the patient. Underdosing it will be ineffective, and overdosing it will kill the patient while curing the disease!

Below the article you will find an accurate table of gentamicin dosage according to weight. It notes that gentamicin should be used for 5 days total, but in the case of Listeriosis, which until recent years has always been considered lethal, so long as the proper dosage is used, if longer treatment is deemed necessary, it should be provided.

Sue Reith
Carmelita Toggs
Bainbridge Island WA
[email protected]

----- Original Message -----
From: Sue Reith
Sent: Tuesday, May 27, 2003 10:38 PM
Subject: Listeriosis: AASRP research report: Wool&Wattles Vol 30, P20, Jan-Mar 2002.

AASRP REPORT, Wool&Wattles, Jan thru Mar 2002, Vol 30, P20


During a 14 years period, 45 sheep and 22 goats of various breeds with listeriosis were examined in Zurich, Switzerland because they had CNS disease. The age ranged from 8 weeks to 7 years.

[a detailed analysis of blood samples follows here]

The diagnosis of listeriosis was based on clinical findings in 55 animals. Forty of the animals were in lateral recumbency on initial examination while a further 9 could only stand with difficulty or assistance. Fevers above 104 F were recorded in 21 animals, while 2 had a subnormal temperature. Ruminal and intestinal motility were reduced in the majority of animals. Stupor or apathy was observed in 46 cases, drooling in 28, and teeth grinding in 21. Intermittent paddling of the limbs was observed in 18 that could not stand initially. A head tilt was observed in 26 recumbent and 17 standing animals. Intermittent convulsions were seen in 12 animals and muscle fasciculations in 13. Circling was observed in 16. Unilateral facial nerve paralysis was observed in 40 animals. Both ears drooped in 7 and both eyelids in 2. Congestion of the scleral blood vessels was observed in 54 animals and a unilateral keratitis in 7 with a corneal ulcer in 2 of these. Nystagmus was noted in 20 and ventrolateral or ventromedial strabismus in 11.

Treatments given included IV sodium chloride/glucose solutions (36 animals), IV sodium bicarbonate to correct metabolic acidosis (18 animals), and antibiotics (36 animals).

Antibiotics were given for 7 to 10 days and flunixin meglumine [Banamine] was given for 3 days.

From 1985 to 1997 the antibiotics most often used were oxytetracycline at 10mg/kg IV q 24 hours or chloramphenicol at 20 mg/kg IV q 8 hrs.

From 1998, the antibiotic regimen was changed to a combination of gentamicin at 3mg/kg IV q 12 h and amoxicillin at 7 mg/kg IM q 24 hours.

In addition, flunixin [Banamine] was given at 2.2 mg/kg IV q 24 hours.

Animals that deteriorated despite treatment were euthanized.

Listeriosis was confirmed by histology in the 57 animals that died or were euthanized (meningoencephalitis with microabscesses in the pons and medulla).

Cultures for Listeria monocytogenes were positive in 9 of 20 attempts.

Of the 10 animals that survived, 9 were able to stand when first examined.

Survival rates were:

1/15 for chloramphenicol,

2/11 for oxytetracycline, and,

6/9 for gentamicin plus ampicillin.

Cephalo-sporins have been reported by others to be ineffective.

Although gentamycin plus ampicillin is currently considered to be the treatment of choice, these animals also received flunixin [Banamine], which may have improved the survival rate.

The authors no longer use corticosteroids [ie:dexamethasone] for treatment of listeriosis.

[Note that use of chloramphenicol in sheep or goats in the USA is a felony and that the meat withdrawal period for gentamicin in small ruminants is probably very long, given that 18 months is recommended for cattle- editor.]

U.Braun et al

Vet Record 150:38-42, 2002

Gentamicin: Dosage chart (based upon 100mg/ml gentamicin)

for sub-cutaneous systemic use:

Goat's weight: Dose every 12 hours @1.5mg/lb daily, treatment recommended for 5 days total

90 lbs 0.675cc

100 lbs 0.75cc
110 lbs 0.825cc

120 lbs 0.90cc

130 lbs 0.975cc

140 lbs 1.05cc

150 lbs 1.125cc

160 lbs 1.20cc

170 lbs 1.275cc

180 lbs 1.35cc

190 lbs 1.425cc

200 lbs 1.50cc

210 lbs 1.575cc

220 lbs 1.65cc

(While I urge you to share this information with other individual goat owners, please do not reproduce the article for publication without my specific permission. Thank you. Sue Reith.)

Sue Reith
Carmelita Toggs
Bainbridge Island WA
[email protected]
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