Copper : Evaluating copper lysine and copper sulfate sources for heifers.

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    Journal of Dairy Science 1999 Dec;82(12):2642-50

    Evaluating copper lysine and copper sulfate sources for heifers.

    Rabiansky PA, McDowell LR, Velasquez-Pereira J, Wilkinson NS, Percival SS, Martin FG, Bates DB, Johnson AB, Batra TR, Salgado-Madriz E
    Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, USA.

    The effects of feeding different sources and quantities of Cu to heifers were evaluated in a 211-d experiment. Forty crossbred predominantly Brahman x Hereford heifers averaging 13.5 mo of age and 301 kg were initially depleted of Cu. The depletion diet was fed for 70 d and consisted of low Cu and high antagonist minerals, Fe, S, and Mo at 1000 mg/kg, 0.5%, and 5 mg/kg (dry basis), respectively. On d 71, heifers continued to receive the antagonistic minerals and were allotted equally to five Cu treatments: 1) control, no additional Cu source; 2) 8 mg of Cu/kg from CuSO4; 3) 16 mg of Cu/kg from CuSO4; 4) 8 mg of Cu/kg from Cu lysine; and 5) 16 mg of Cu/kg from Cu lysine. When no notable change in concentration of Cu in the liver was observed, d 169, a second diet was formulated. The heifers were fed the same Cu treatments, but S and Mo were removed and Fe was lowered to 50 mg/kg. This diet was then fed for the final 42 d of the experiment. In addition to performance, concentrations of Cu, Fe, and Zn in the plasma and liver, plasma ceruloplasmin, hemoglobin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a cell mediated immune response (phytohemagglutinin-P, PHA) were measured. Heifers in this study had increased growth over time, but there were no treatment differences for growth and average daily gain. Liver and plasma Cu concentrations were not greatly influenced by different supplemental Cu sources. However, compared with other treatments, Cu lysine (16 mg/kg) increased liver Cu in cattle that were deficient and tended to increase plasma Cu in animals that were marginally deficient in Cu. Iron concentrations decreased over time in liver
    and plasma, but there was no difference in Fe and Zn concentrations in liver and plasma among treatments. Differences in ceruloplasmin and hemoglobin concentrations were significant over time but not among treatments. The SOD activity in neutrophils did not change over time, but SOD activity of lymphocytes increased over time. For the PHA immune response test, there was no effect of time or a time by treatment interaction. These data suggest
    that all Cu sources were available, but Cu at 16 mg/kg from Cu lysine was more beneficial than were other sources and particularly for heifers with low Cu status.

    PMID: 10629812, UI: 20095276