All of our minerals are formulated to be oxide free. Why is this so important?
We strive to supply the most stable, most bioavailable forms of minerals available. In general, oxides tend to be the least stable and the least bioavailable. Therefore, as a general rule of thumb, we do not use oxides for any mineral source. Not all minerals have the same stability. Feed tags may have terms such as proteinated, chelated and other terms. On Meadow Mate tags you will find these terms. Proteinates are derived by reacting a mineral salt with an enzymatically prepared mixture of amino acids and small peptides under controlled conditions. The result is a mineral-organic complex called a ìchelateî. Chelation literally means ëa bringing togetherí, that being mineral salts reacted with a specially prepared mixture of amino acids to form a mineral proteinate.
This form of chelation must occur within the animal for metals to be absorbed, and so is naturally recognized by the animal. A good example of this is the chelation between Iron and Hemoglobin within the body aiding transport of oxygen. The minerals of use in chelate form are the trace elements Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, copper and Zinc. The goal of forming chelates of these nutritionally important elements is to increase the bioavailability of the mineral to the goat. Solubility is critical for trace mineral absorption, however during digestion changes in the chemical environment (pH, redox potential) and numerous reactions among digestion products alter trace mineral solubility. Chelates are stable, electrically neutral complexes which protect trace minerals from chemical reactions during digestion that would render the mineral unavailable to the animal. Conventional inorganic mineral supplements, typically added in oxide or sulfide form (i.e., zinc or manganese oxide) are released (ionized) at the low pH of the stomach. In this electrically charged form Zn+2 in the case of zinc) the mineral is able to react with other products of digestion. A complex with an organic ligand must form if absorption is to occur, however often formation of an insoluble, unavailable substance is the result.
Not all minerals needed in animal nutrition are capable of forming chelate complexes. The nutritionally important trace minerals are chemically unique. Iron, manganese, cobalt, copper and zinc belong to a section of the Periodic Table called ìtransitional elementsî. Transition means they have chemical characteristics more or less between the metal and non-metal elements. In particular, the transition minerals bond differently than do other nutritionally important minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus. Instead of forming the ionic or covalent bonds that link the major minerals, transition elements prefer to form coordinate covalent bonds. This hybrid form of linkage gives transition minerals their unique ability to form stable complexes (coordination complexes or chelates). A complex of this type between the transition metal and an organic compound (amino acid or small peptide) is useful in animal nutrition to protect trace minerals during digestion. This method of optimizing absorption is especially important given the low quantity and critical need for these minerals.
The chelate is formed between a trace mineral and a chelating agent. The chelating agent (called a ligand) must be able to bind the metal at more than one point such that the metal atom becomes part of a ring. The term chelate is derived from the chele or claw of a lobster. Imagine a marble held by the thumb and index finger of both hands. This represents a chelate bound to the two organic ligands such as amino acids.
Certain amino acids and protein digestion products such as small peptides make useful chelating agents because they contain at least two functional groups (amino and hydroxyl groups) that can form the ring structure with a transition metal.
The amino acids and small peptides used in Meadow Mate are derived from vegetable sources.
Why not just increase additional levels of inexpensive inorganic mineral sources? Bioavailability of inorganic sources may vary from as low as 5-20% to as high as 80-90% depending on physical form and reactions with other dietary nutrients. While low availabilities can be numerically corrected by over-addition, nutrient imbalances create difficulties of their own. Absorption of many trace minerals is affected by the concentrations of other minerals. An example is the poor absorption of copper in the presence of molybdenum. Likewise, dietary formulation changes are frequently made which change considerably the pH and/or redox potential of the feed such as high levels of copper in the form of CuSO4 or addition of unsaturated fats of Vitamin C (chelator). changes in mineral concentrations of the diet to account for low availability may serve to alter the type of balance of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring in the gut or in mineral-vitamin premixes, but may not necessarily provide the nutrient amount calculated.
The main purpose of a chelate is to protect the mineral from becoming involved in undesirable chemical reactions in the gut which form insoluble complexes that are eventually excreted. Chelates do not become ìlocked-upî in the intestine and wasted like inorganic metal salts. Upon reaching the sites of absorption the chelates are in a more available form to the animal. This also leads to lower concentrations of metals in the excreta, an added bonus from the waste management and environmental standpoint.
The chelated mineral reaches the plasma intact, and separates only at the site of action, ensuring maximum performance of the proteinated mineral.
Trace mineral availability is often low because mineral released during acid digestion forms an insoluble compound once pancreatic bicarbonate restores a more neutral (higher) pH in the intestine. to test Meadow Mateís proteinated mineralís solubility, researchers in the Biochemistry Department at the national University of Ireland followed changes over a pH range of 4.5 to 10.0. They found that all four proteinates (Cu, Mn, Co and Zn) retained the desired solubility characteristics.
Proteinates and chelates are types of complexes, but not all complexes are chelate compounds. Proteinates, such as those found in Meadow Mate, are formed by chelation of soluble metal salts with amino acids or partially hydrolized protein. Metal complexes can be formed by merely mixing metal salt and an amino acid, but formation of the ring structure and coordinate covalent bond in a true chelate is a chemical event requiring exacting reaction conditions. Organic acids such as fumaric, citric and gluconic also form metal complexes, but do not form the ring-structured chelate because they lack an amino group.
Genetic selection for maximum production of milk, meat, hair and offspring has increased the need for optimum trace mineral availability to support metabolic function. This need becomes critical when demand for extra nutrients for pregnancy, rapid growth, stress or disease conditions are superimposed on production requirements. Use proteinated minerals during periods of high nutritional demand or physiological change such as birth and during the re-breeding cycle. where mineral deficiencies occur use proteinates to correct them quickly and efficiently.
Proteinates are used to supply 10-30% of the required dietary trace mineral concentration. Certain situations may suggest use of the Meadow Mate proteinated mineral as a supplement rather than a substitute, an example being use of Zinc Proteinate found in Walk-Rite where hoof problems are related to mineral deficiencies.
Chelating is not a new idea. In the late 1960ís chelating agents such as EDTA were used as carriers to incorporate synthetic agents which would otherwise be rejected by the body as foreign. Unfortunately, these types of chelating carriers were found ineffective because they did not release the particular mineral or compound for absorption. Meadow mate proteinated minerals imitate those naturally present in the body and release the trace mineral at the site of action. The carrier peptide has also been shown to have a biological role within the animal. Hence, a dual action of preferred absorption can also lead to increased levels of a required amino acid or peptide within the animal.
SUMMARY of Proteinates
Proteinates are chelated minerals.
They are an effective nutritional aid.
They should be used as problem solving tools by a qualified animal nutritionist.
The major benefits of the Meadow Mate proteinate series are:
A. Improved reproductive per-
B. Improved health and disease
C. Improved soundness
D. Improved growth
The Meadow Mate proteinate series work by:
A. Improved availability
B. Targeting specific tissues
C. Improving cellular oxygen
D. Improving immune response
Inclusion rate of the Meadow Mate proteinate series varies from zero to 65 percent of total mineral level depending upon the desired function or response.
Highly available forms of Calcium, Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium and Sulfur are usually referred to as the major minerals. Calcium and Phosphorous are the two most important mineral required. A proper balance of minerals triggers the digestive processes and promotes a more efficient utilization of other foodstuffs in the rations. Imbalance or deficiency is indirectly the cause of milk fever, reproduction problems, weak kids and many related problems.
Always remember to select the right Calcium-Phosphorous ratio mineral to balance your source of forage. If you have questions, always consult a qualified nutritional consultant or call the Meadow Mate staff for advise.
Our premium mineral products include the related trace minerals required for optimum animal health and production. Trace minerals, though needed in small amounts, are just as important to health as the major minerals. Our trace minerals used in the premium products are guaranteed levels of highly available forms of trace minerals derived from multiple sources and appear in the proper balance to meet the needs of todayís high production animals.
ROLE OF MINERALS
Minerals play an important role in the growth and maintenance of healthy livestock. Minerals come from the soil, are absorbed through plants and eaten by the animals. Because of various soil deficiencies due to a variety of causes (geography, abuse, pollution) most goat producers find it necessary to supplement their feeding rations with minerals. There are several aspects to be considered when selecting a mineral product for supplementation.
In order for mineral to function properly, they have to be in balance or in proper ration to one another. Excesses of certain minerals will cause deficiencies in certain other minerals. On the other hand, deficiencies in certain mineral will cause others to be malabsorbed or poorly utilized leading to further deficiency. A proper ratio is the key.
Using the most up-to-date research data available, our Meadow Mate products have been formulated with much attention to the delicate balance of minerals required for goat nutritional needs.
Each mineral is available from a variety of sources. These sources vary in the bodyís ability to absorb and use them and their market price. Not surprisingly, these two factors are closely related. Guaranteed analysis does not necessarily reflect the amounts of mineral actually available to be used by the animal. The goat producer must be mindful of the sources used to fully evaluate the mineral supplementís actual worth.
Meadow Mate minerals are formulated without using oxides, but rather selecting those sources with high bioavailability.
Although we have been talking about minerals, and zinc is certainly a mineral, because of its importance, it bears addressing individually, if only briefly. Years of research have established zinc as one of the most active minerals in nutrition. Zinc is necessary for the activity of more than 90 enzymes associated with energy and protein metabolism. Deficiencies of zinc can result in growth retardation, foot problems, skin lesions, diarrhea, impaired wound healing, poor immune response and impaired reproduction.
But just adding zinc to the diet from any source is no guarantee that it will be assimilated by the animal. The absorption of inorganic forms of zinc (such as zinc sulfate and zinc oxide) can be affected by diet-related factors such as phytic acid, plant phytates, calcium, copper, cadmium, cobalt, phosphates and certain levels and types of proteins. But with Meadow Mateís zinc proteinate complexes, the bioavailability of zinc is greatly increased and there is o binding or tying up with other important nutrients.