Thank you Michelle of Aja-Sammanti
CL, Pigeon Fever & Diphtheria
Here is what I learned when I was writing my paper:
Caseous lymphadenitis is caused by the Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis bacteria. The family corynebacteriaceae has strains that cause all kinds of fun things, including mastitis, acne infections, and diptheria (http://www.textbookofbacteriology.net/diphtheria.html
, but no one bacteria causes all of them.
Corynebacterium cause lymphatic abscesses in several species, including goat & sheep http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/10801.htm&word=C%2cpseudotuberculosis
, pigs, cattle, horses, cats, dogs, rats, camels and whales(!). In sheep & goats we call it CL. In horses & cows we call it Pigeon Fever, Pigeon Breast, Dry-land Distemper or False Strangles http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/10802.htm
In fact, diphtheria type symptoms, which they used to assume were caused by corynebacterium ulcerans infections from cows, specifically from drinking raw milk, have been transferred from cats, dogs, and pigs to people. (http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/8/1314.htm
While CL infection in people is possible, it is rare. I did find references to infections in New Zealand & Spain from sheep (ovis).
1 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7769881?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.P ubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pu bmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedreviews&lo gdbfrom=pubmed
2 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WHW-4PMJB8P-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_doc anchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=986244654&_rerunOrigin =google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0& _userid=10&md5=95ac7e78e0822f633895528b3087e5c6
I'm sure it is a good article, but $31.50!!!
3 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9114145?ordinalpos=4&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.P ubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPane l.Pubmed_RVDocSum
One of the most common forms of corynebacterium infection in the dry parts of the US is actually from Pigeon Fever in horses. That is what started my research, as I was concerned that having horses and goats was a bad thing (heaven forbid that my horses would ever endanger my herd health!) Research done indicates that the strain of Corynebacterium that infects horses & cows is of the same family as the one that infects sheep and goats, but is a different biotype. Strains of bacteria develop for each species they infect, thus there are different biotypes. That is why coccidia from your goats doesn't infect your chickens and vice versa. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TD6-3T40NDH-5&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_doc anchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=986242768&_rerunOrigin =google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0& _userid=10&md5=d7c9ba34e04260b8a8531e209547c4c4
Interestingly, they treat people with it with IV erythromycin, and report no reinfection...very odd, since we know that it is recurring in goats and sheep, as well as horses.
Now, the method of transmission of pigeon fever is not completely understood in horses, as I am sure it isn't in goats, but we know that the ground becomes infected with goats, as well as any porous surfaces. My vet confirmed that in horses, guaranteeing no exposure with insect vectors being a factor was almost impossible. I would assume the same with sheep/goats. If you buy a piece of property, how do you KNOW that there has never been a case of CL on that land?? In that barn? How do you know that your neighbor three doors down doesn't have CL in their sheep? That those sheep have never strayed onto your property? That your goats will never stray to theirs? That there was never an infected animal in the dirt floored or wooden penned stall at your fair? An infected animal was never hauled in the used trailer you bought. You don't. Animals, and people, do not live in a vacuum.
So there is the beginning of more than you ever wanted to know about the CL family tree